Personality

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Psychology
Chapter 13
Vocabulary
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1

Personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

2

Psychodynamic Theories

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

3

Free Association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial and embarrassing

4

Psychoanalysis

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used to treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

5

Unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

6

Id

a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.

7

Ego

the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

8

Superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations

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Psychosexual Stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which,according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

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Oedipus Complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

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Identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos

12

Fixiation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

13

Defense Mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

14

Repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness

15

Collective Unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

16

Projective Test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

17

Rorschach Inkblot Test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblot that seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the inkblots

18

Terror-Management Theory

a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death

19

Humanistic Theories

View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth

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Self-Actualization

according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieves; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

21

Unconditional Positive Regard

according to Rodgers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

22

Self-Concept

all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves

23

Trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assesses by self-report inventories and peer reports

24

Personality Inventory

a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feeling and behaviors

25

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this tesst is now used for many othe screening purposes.

26

Empirically Derived Test

a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

27

Social-Cognitive Perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social context.

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Reciprocal Determinism

the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment

29

Personal Control

the extent to which we perceive control over our environment

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External Locus of Control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate

31

Internal Locus of Control

the perception that you control your own fate

32

Self-Control

the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards

33

Learned Helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

34

Positive Psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive

35

Self

in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions

36

Spotlight Effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

37

Self-Esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

38

Self-Serving Bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

39

Narcissism

excessive self-love and self-absorption