Intelligence

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Psychology
Chapter 10
updated 7 years ago by queenbenedicta
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College: First year
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1

Intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

2

Intelligence Test

a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores

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General Intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test

4

Factor Analysis

a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score

5

Savant Syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing

6

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions

7

Mental Age

a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.

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Stanford-Binet

the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test

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Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.

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Achievement Test

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

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Aptitude Test

a test designed to predict a person's future performance

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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests

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Standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

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Normal Curve

the symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.

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Reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent result, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.

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Validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.

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Content Validity

the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

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Predictive Validity

the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

19

Cohort

a group of people from a given time period

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Crystallized Intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

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Fluid Intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

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Intellectual Disability

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to demands of life; varies from mild to profound

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Down Syndrome

a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21

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Heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes.

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Stereotype Threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative sterotype

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Thurstone's Primary Mental Abilities

Our intelligence may be broken down into seven factors: word fluency verbal, verbal comprehension, spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning, and memory

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Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

Our abilities are best classified into eight independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts.

28

Sternberg's Triachic

Our intellegence is best classified into three areas that predict real-world success: analytical, creative, and practical