Chemistry (Chapter 7)- Metals

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1

What gas is given off when metals react with acids or water

Hydrogen

2

Describe the reaction of potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium with water or acid

Water
-Fizzes
-Gives off hydrogen
-Leaves an alkali solution of metal hydroxide

Acid
-Explodes

3

Describe the reaction of magnesium, aluminum, zinc and iron with water or acid

Water (Steam)
-Gives off hydrogen
-Leaves an alkali solution of metal oxide

Acid
-Fizz
-Gives off hydrogen
-Forms a salt

4

Describe the reaction of tin or lead with water or acid

Water (Steam)
Slight reaction

Acid
-Reacts slowly and acid must be warm

5

Describe the reaction of copper, silver or gold with water or acid

-Both no reaction

6

A more reactive metal_____________ from an aqueous solution of one of its salts

Will displace a less reactive metal

7

How can we place hydrogen and carbon in the reactivity series? (Give example)

Through displacement reactions

-Copper cannot displace hydrogen whereas lead can, so hydrogen must be somewhere between copper and lead

8

Why do we need to purify metals that we extract from ores?

Because they come in compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal

9

How are metals extracted? (Explain the methods)

-Reduction with carbon
Carbon can be used to extract metals that are less reactive that it by reduction

-Electrolysis
This method is used for metals that are more reactive than carbon, so it is heated till a molten state before electrolysis

10

How is copper extracted?

-Use sulfuric acid to produce copper sulfate, where the copper is extracted
-Smelting.

11

How does electrolysis work for copper

Because metals are positively charged, they are attracted to the negative anode

12

Provide a simple ionic equation for the positive anode when extracting copper.

Cu(2+) + 2e- ---->Cu

13

Provide a simple ionic equation for the negative anode when extracting copper.

Cu+2e- -----> Cu2e-

14

What are the two ways of extracting copper from low grade ores

-Bioleaching
-Phytomining

15

Briefly explain phytomining

Plants can absorb copper ores as they grow, they can be burned to extract the copper within the ash by using sulphuric acid

16

Briefly explain bioleaching

By using bacteria that feeds on copper ores, we can use various processes we can get a solution of copper ions from waste copper ions

17

Describe several key characteristic atomic structures of metals

-Packed closely together
-Metal ions packed together
-The outer electrons can easily move through the giant structure

18

Alloys

A mixture of metals

19

Why are alloys stronger than metals

Because the atom size of the the metals are different, so they cannot slide over each other so easily

20

How can metals conduct electricity

Due to a sea of delocalized electrons that carry electrical current

21

Why are metals malleable.

Because the layers of atoms can slide across one another

22

Shape memory alloys

Alloys that return to their original shape if they are bent

23

Give an example on how shape memory alloys are used

-Braces

24

How is iron extracted from iron ore?

-By reducing it in a blast furnace
-The reducing agent is carbon monoxide gas

25

By adding controlled amounts of carbon and other elements, iron can be transformed into

Steel alloys

26

Give some example of steels and their uses

-Low carbon steels, easily shaped used to make car bodies
-High carbon steels, very hard
-Stainless steel, resistant to corrosion, used to make cutlery