Chapter 22: 3--Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s

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1

what happened when Fidel Castro overthrew U.S. backed dictator Fulgencio Batista in Cuba 1959?

-he Seized some U.S. companies, U.S. breaks relations w/ Cuba
-he Develops ties w/ SU, US fears Cuba will become model for revolutionary upheaval in Latin America

2

why did some Cubans support Castro?

-he promised to improve the lives of poor people
-he claimed that the poor were being exploited by wealthy Cubans and by US companies in Cuba

3

what was the US Plan to Overthrow Castro?

-CIA trains group of Cubans in Guatemala to invade Cuba & overthrow Castro
-Kennedy expected Cuban people to help invaders

4

why and from who did US resistance to the US Plan to Overthrow Castro surface?

-Ex: Democratic Senator J. William Fulbright, head of Foreign Relations Committee, called scheme “endless can of worms”
-People thought plan was like what US denounces SU for

5

why was the Bay of Pigs Invasion a total disaster (April 17, 1961)?

-Airstrike failed to destroy Cuban air force, Cuban troops dominated American trained
-Kennedy refuses using US planes to provide air cover, chose to accept defeat

6

why did the US lose prestige in the Bay of Pigs Invasion?

-the attack was clumsy and incompetent
-US’s support of effort to overthrow another country’s gov was revealed to the world
-LA countries angry: US violated agreements to not interfere in Western Hemisphere
-European leaders concerned w/ kind of leadership Kennedy would provide to US

7

What happened to Germany after WWII?

-SU, & F each had 1 zone
-Meant to be temporary, but divisions hardened as Cold War tensions increased
-Western regions combined, formed West Germany
-SU controlled sector= East Germany
-Berlin (inside East Germany) divided among allies

8

how did the SU attempt to resolve the Berlin Crisis on their own terms?

-1st Soviet attempt to cut off access to Berlin in 1948 failed cause of Truman’s Berlin airlift
-SU tried again resolving problems on own terms: demanded peace treaty to make city division permanent
-Goal to cut off large flow of East Germans escaping to West Germany through Berlin

9

What did Kennedy fear about the Berlin Crisis and what increased his fear?

-Kennedy feared SU Germany effort part of plan to take over Europe
-1st meeting w/ SU leader Nikita Khrushchev June 1961 went poorly, added to his fears: K made public ultimatum about Germany, Kennedy felt bullied by SU leader

10

How did Kennedy Take Action?
how did SU respond?

-he decided to show SU that US not intimidated
-Asked Congress for increase of $3 billion in defense, doubled # of men drafted into army, called up reserve forces for active duty, sought > $200 million for program to build fallout shelters in Germany
-Argued US need to prepare if crisis led to nuclear war
-On TV said US wouldn’t be pushed around
-SU responded w/ building the Berlin Wall in August 1961 to stop escapees

11

What triggered the Cuban Missile Crisis?

-SU began building missile bases in Cuba October 1962

12

what were Kennedy's options in responding to the SU building missiles in Cuba?

-1.Further negotiations w/ Khrushchev: peaceful but gives SU more time to build & risked Kennedy looking hesitant & weak
-2. Invade Cuba, eliminating missile threat & ousting Castro: but an invasion had failed before, & plan risked all-out nuclear war w/ SU
-3. missile deliveries, forcing Khrushchev to back off or take action US warships (no one knew how he would react to this US action)
-4. Bomb missile sites to knock out missiles, but SU could launch a counterstrike
a. Attorney General Robert Kennedy against this option
b. Former Secretary of State Dean Acheson said US had to bomb but could escalate into war

13

who was against Bombing missile sites to knock out missiles in Cuba and why?

-Attorney General Robert Kennedy against this option
-Former Secretary of State Dean Acheson said US had to bomb but could escalate into war

14

how did Kennedy finally decided to react during the Cuban missile crisis?
what was the public reaction to his decision?

-he ordered US forces on full alert
-October 22, 1962: announced on TV about SU missile building & authorized naval quarantine around Cuba, demanded Khrushchev to stop building, said US doesn’t desire confrontation but wouldn’t shrink from aggression
-mixture of anger & fear, in support of president

15

what happened when the Naval quarantine started October 24?
what letters did Khrushchev send and what was Kennedy's reaction to them?
what did people think of Kennedy after the crisis ended?

-Khrushchev called some SU ships back to SU
-October 26: Khrushchev sent letter pledging to remove missiles if US ended quarantine and stayed out of Cuba, 2nd letter demanded US remove missiles from Turkey in exchange
-Kennedy publicly accepted terms of 1st note, secretly met and accepted of 2nd
-War avoided, Kennedy’s reputation rose

16

what were the aftereffects of the crisis?

-SU and Us leaders developed “hot line” for quick communication in case of crisis
-Limited Test Ban Treaty signed 1963 summer between US, SU, and GB
-1st nuclear treaty since atomic bomb developed
-Banned nuclear testing above ground: to eliminate radioactive effects
-Underground testing still allowed, US and SU continued to build bigger bombs

17

Limited Test Ban Treaty summer 1963?

-between US, SU, and GB
-1st nuclear treaty since atomic bomb developed
-Banned nuclear testing above ground: to eliminate radioactive effects
-Underground testing still allowed, US and SU continued to build bigger bombs

18

why was the Alliance for Progress formed?
what was it?
why didn't it fully meet Kennedy's expectations?

-US & SU competed by seeking alliances in developing countries in LA, Asia, & Africa: most of these countries poor, commy movements gaining support there
-To prevent commy revolutions & promote “peaceful revolutions” (demo western) Kennedy created this for Western Hemisphere to give homes, work, land, health, & schools
-Gave $20 billion over 10 years
-Las began questioning alliance benefits: some viewed as US tool to stop communism
-Resulting of doubts, alliance never lived up to Kennedy’s expectations

19

The Peace Corps (1961)

-sent volunteers abroad as educators, health workers, & technicians to help developing nations
-Job to raise standard of living in poor areas, to work w/ local govs to provide services like garbage removal & clean water

20

Johnson’s Foreign Policy

-focused on containing communism around the world

21

The Dominican Republic: 1965 military-back gov there attacked by rebels--
Johnson's reaction

-Johnson feared disruption endanger Americans there, argues wrongly that Commies behind disruption: sent 22,000 marines there
-Presence tipped balance away from rebels, soon provisional gov back by US put in place

22

Vietnam: Johnson involved in conflict between Commy North and non-Commy South:
what did he at 1st do
what did he do facing the prospect of Commy takeover

-1963: about 16,000 US military advisors there, also gave economic aid to SV gov
-1964 campaign, J opposed US involvement in war, but then faced prospect of Commy takeover, 1965 US involvement deepened, more troops & $ sent to help SV gov