human anatomy chapter 13

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1

Nervous system characteristics (2)

1. Controls and adjust the activity of the body
2. Provides swift but brief responses

2

The nervous system includes:

1. Central Nervous system (CNS)
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

3

The nervous system includes:
1. Central Nervous System (CNS)

associated with the brain and the spinal cord

4

The nervous system includes:
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

associated with the tissue outside the CNS

5

Sibdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

1. Afferent
2. Efferent

6

subdividions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
1. Afferent
A. is
B. subdivisions

A. Brings sensory information toward the CNS
B. I. Somatic
II. Visceral

7

Subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
2. Efferent
A. is
B. Subdivisions

1. Carries motor commands away from the CNS
2. I. Somatic nerves
II. Autonomic nerves

8
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1. Central Nervous system
2. Peripheral Nervous system

9

Peripheral Nervous system
1. Afferent
A. Sensory portion:
B. Visceral portion:

A. monitors skeletal muscles and joints
B. monitors smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and other internal organs

10

Peripheral Nervous System
2. Efferent
A. Somatic Nerves:
B. Autonomic Nerves:

A. Controls skeletal muscle contraction
B. Controls internal organ activities

11

Peripheral Nervous System:
B. Autonomic nerves can be subdivided into... (2)

1. parasympathetic nerves
2. sympathetic nerves

12

Peripheral Nervous system:
B. Autonomic Nerves
I. Parasympathetic Nerves
II. Sympathetic nerves

I. Causes pupil constriction. decrease heart rate, and tense the urinary bladder
II. Cause pupil dilation, increase heart rate, relax urinary bladder

13

Neural tissue consists of two cell types:

1. Neurons
2. Neuroglia

14

Two Cell types Neural tissue consists of
1. Neurons
A. These are....
B. Consists of...

A. Nerve cells that are responsible for the transfer and processing of information in the nervous system
B. a soma, axon, and dendrites

15

Two cell types tissue consists of
2. Neuroglia
A. these are
B. function

A.Supporting cells
B. Protect the neuron

16
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1. Axon 2. cell body
3. Nucleus 4. nucleolus
5. dendrites

17

functions of neuroglia (7)

1. Provide the framework for the neural tissue
2. Maintain the intercellular environment
3. Act as phagocytes
4. Over 100 billion
5. Roughly five times the number of neurons
6. Also called glial cells
7. Have the ability to reproduce

18

Neuroglia Cells of CNS (4)

1. Astrocytes
2. Oligodendrocytes
3. Microglia
4. Ependymal cells

19

Neuroglia Cells of PNS (2)

1. Satellite cells
2. Schwann cells

20
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1. Neuroglia 2. Peripheral nervous System
3. Central Nercous System 4. Satellite cells
5. Schwann cells 6. Oligodenrocytes
7. Astrocytes 8. Microglia
9. Ependymal cells

21

Neuroglia of CNS
1. Astrocytes
A. Have a large number of...
B. Control the...
C. Maintain...
D. Isolate...

A. cytoplasmic processes
B. chemical content of the interstitial environment
C. the blood–brain barrier
D. the neurons from general circulation

22

Neuroglia of the CNS
2. Oligodendrocytes
A. Cytoplasmic extensions
B. Cytoplasmic extensions

A. contact the somas or axons
B. tie axons together in a sheath of myelin

23

Neuroglia of the CNS
3. Microglia
A. Are
B. Function

A. Phagocytic cells
B. Protect the neuron by removing waste and debris

24

Neuroglia of the CNS
4. Ependymal cells
A. Line...
B. Line...
C. Monitor...
D. Some ependymal cells...

1. the ventricles of the brain
2. the central canal of the spinal cord
3. the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) composition
4. secrete CSF

25
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1. Neuron 2. Myelinated axons
3. internode 4. Microglial cell
5. Oligodendrocyte 6. Myelin cut
7. axolemma 8. axon
9. myelin sheath gap 10. Astrocyte
11. unmyelinated axon

26
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1. Ependymal cells
2. central canal

27

Neuroglia of the PNS
1. Satellite cells Function

Regulate the exchange of material between the cell body and the environment

28

Neuroglia of the PNS
2. Schwann cells
A. AKA
B. form

A. neurolemmocytes
B. Myelin sheath

29
card image

1. Nerve Cell body 2. Nucleus
3. satellite cells 4. Connective Tissue

30
card image

1. Axon hillock 2. Nucleus
3. dendrites 4. Axon
5. Myelinated internode
6. Initial segment (unmyelinated)
7. Myelin sheath gaps 8. Schwann cell nucleus
9. Axon 10. neurolemma
11. Myelin covering internode 12. axolemma

31
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1. schwann cell 2. schwann cell nucleus
3. neurolemma 4. axon
5. Myelin sheath gap

32

Neurons consist of (4)

1. Axons
2. Soma (cell body)
3. Dendrites
4. Terminal boutons

33

Neuron Structure
1. Axons
2. Soma (cell body)
3. Dendrites
4. Terminal boutons

1. Conducts nerve impulse (action potential) toward synaptic terminals
2. Contains the nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, and other organelles and inclusions
3. Stimulated by environmental changes or the activities of other cells
4.Affect another neuron or effector organ (muscle or gland)

34

Soma consists of (5)
6. Lacks

1. Nucleus
2. Nucleolus
3. Ribosomes (clusters are called Nissl bodies or chromatophilic substances – create gray matter)
4. Mitochondria
5. Golgi apparatus
6. centrosomes – cannot reproduce

35

Axon (nerve fiber) consists of (3)

1. Axon hillock area
2. Axoplasm
3. Axon vesicles containing neurotransmitters

36

Neuron Classifications (2)

1. Structure
2. Function

37

Neuron classification
1. structural classifications based on (2)

1. the placement of the cell body
2. the number of processes extending from the cell body

38

Neuron Classification
1. Structural classifications

1. Anaxonic
2. Bipolar
3. Pseudounipolar
4. Multipolar

39

Neuron Classification
1. Structural classifications
A. Anaxonic
B. Bipolar
C. Pseudounipolar
D. Multipolar

A. Has many processes but cannot differentiate between axons and dendrites
B. The cell body is between two axons
C. The cell body is off to one side of the axon
D. Typically has a single axon and multiple dendrites

40

Neuron Classification
2. Functional classifications

1. Sensory
2. Motor
3. Interneuron (involved with both sensory and motor)

41
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1. Anaxonic 2. Bipolar
3. Pseudounipolar 4. Multipolar
5. Dendrites 6. axon
7. Terminal boutons

42

Neuron Classification
2. Functional Classification of Neurons (3)

A. Sensory
B. Motor
C. Interneuron

43

Neuron Classification
2. Functional Classification of Neurons
A. Sensory
I. sends...
II. includues... (2)
III. Picks up info from...

I. Sends information from the PNS to the CNS
II. Somatic sensory and visceral sensory
III. receptors and send it to the CNS

44

Neuron Classification
2. Functional Classification of Neurons
B. Motor
I. Does...
II. Sends info

I. Sends information from the CNS to the periphery
II. to the effectors of the periphery or organs

45

Neuron Classification
2. Functional Classification of Neurons
C. Interneuron
I. Situated between...
II. Analyze...
III. Can be...

I. the motor and sensory neurons
II. sensory input and coordinate motor outputs
III. excitatory or inhibitory

46

There are three major types of receptors

1. Exteroceptors
2. Proprioceptors
3. Interoceptors

47

There are three major types of receptors
1. Exteroceptors

Provide information about the external environment such as:
Touch, temperature, pressure, sight, smell, and hearing

48

There are three major types of receptors
2. Proprioceptors

Monitor position and movement of the body

49

There are three major types of receptors
3. Interoceptors

Monitor internal organ activity

50

Neural Regeneration
Steps involved in the limited ability to repair (2)

1. Schwann cells grow into the cut area
2. Axons begin to grow into the Schwann cells

51

1. Action Potential
2. action potential due to...
3. Excitability
4. stimulus
5. a stimulus has to overcome...
6. threshold level...

1. a nerve impulse
2. the exchange of ions across the membrane
3. The ability to conduct the impulse
4. anything that causes an action potential to occur
5. threshold level of that particular neuron
6. the amount of stimuli required to create the action potential

52

The “speed” of the impulse depends on:

1. Presence of myelin sheath
2. diameter of the axon

53

The “speed” of the impulse depends on:
1. Presence of a myelin sheath
2. lack of myelin sheath
3. Axon with a large diameter
4. Axon with a small diameter

1. Fast impulse
2. Slow impulse
3. Fast impulse, Up to 140 m/sec
4. Slow impulse, Less than 1 m/sec

54

A synapse is the junction between:
1. axodendritic
2. axosomic
3. axoaxonic
4. neuromuscular
5. neuroglandular

1. The axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another neuron
2. The axon of one neuron and the soma of another neuron
3. The axon of one neuron and the axon of another neuron
4. The axon of a neuron and a muscle
5. The axon of a neuron and a gland

55
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1. Synapses with another neuron
2. Neuromuscular synapses
3. Neuroglandular synapses

56

Synaptic Communication
1. Vesicular synapses
2. Nonvesicular synapses

1. Involve a neurotransmitter, Impulses are conveyed in one direction only
2. Involve the flow of ions, Impulses can be conveyed in any direction

57

Synaptic Communication
1. Vesicular synapses events (1-4)

1. An action potential arrives at the presynaptic membrane
2. This triggers the release of a neurotransmitter from the axon vesicles
3. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse
4. The neurotransmitter binds to the postsynaptic membrane

58

Synaptic Communication
1. Vesicular synapses events (5-6)

5. This binding action causes a change in the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane
6. This change in permeability results in an action potential of the next neuron

59

Synaptic communication
2. Noncesicular synapse events (2)

1. The presynaptic membrane of one neuron is tightly bound to the postsynaptic membrane of another neuron
2. This binding permits the passage of ions from one neuron to the next

60

Neurons can be organized into smaller organized groups called

neuronal pools

61

The neuronal pools are identified by their __1__such as: (5)

1. neural circuitry
A. Divergence
B. Convergence
C. Serial processing
D. Parallel processing
E. Reverberation

62

Neuronal pools
A. Divergence
I. Is.
II. permits
III. Information enters...

I. The spread of information from one neuron to several neurons
II. broad distribution of a specific input
III. the CNS and then spreads to the brain and spinal cord at the same time

63

Neuronal pools
B. Convergence
I. is
II. example

I. Information going from several neurons to a single neuron
II. Movements of the diaphragm muscle are involuntary, but yet at times we can move the diaphragm muscle voluntarily

64

Neuronal pools
C. Serial processing
I. is
II. example

I. Information going from one neuron to the next in a sequence
II. Information going to one part of the brain then, to another part, and then to another part, etc.

65

Neuronal pools
D. Parallel processing
I. is...
II. example

I. Several neurons are processing the information at the same time
II. If you step on a nail, you typically move your foot, shout “ouch,” and dance a bit, all at the same time

66

Neuronal Pools
E. Reverberation
I. is...

I. Collateral axons extend back toward the origin of the impulse to cause an enhancement or a continuation of the impulse

67
card image

A. Divergence
B. Convergence
C. Serial processing
D. Parallel processing
E. Reverberation

68

Organization in the CNS
1. A collection of cell bodies in one area creates
2. Bundles of axons in an area create
A. these are called

1. grey matter
2. white matter
A. tracts and column

69

Organization in the PNS
1. the cell bodies are found in the...
2. Axons are bundled together to form

1. Ganglia
2. spinal nerves and cranial nerves