chemicals that function to minimize changes in the pH of body fluids are called
if the hydrogen ion concentration in the blood increases, bicarbonate ions act as buffer by
a. removing excess hydrogen ions from the plasma
which of the following is NOT a buffer system of the body?
d. NaCl buffer system
a person working in the hot sun loses the greatest amount of water from the
c. is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
which of the following substances releases hydrogen ions into a solution?
c. is secreted by the sweat glands
loss of a large volume of sweat will
d. increase the osmolality of body fluids
in which of the following situations does one see large volumes of dilute urine produced?
a. ADH levels decrease
angiotensin II increases blood volume by stimulating
under normal conditions, most water loss from the body is through the
which of the following is an example of water conservation by the body?
d. decreased urine volume
d. reduces extracellular calcium ion levels
increased osmolality of the ECF
a. increases thirst
the sensation of thirst results from
c. stimulation of osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus
what is the main role of magnesium ions in the body?
d. cofactors for intracellular enzymes
the main regulator of serum phosphate levels is a transport process in the
a major complication of thyroid surgery is the accidental damaging or removal of the parathyroid glands. this damage or removal of the parathyroid glands can result in
c. decreased plasma calcium
adequate calcium absorption from the GI tract depends on
c. adequate amounts of vitamin D
stimulus for the secretion of parathyroid hormone is a decrease in serum
b. calcium levels
parathyroid hormone effects the
c. intestine, kidneys, and bone
calcium balance is influenced by
c. parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels
caclium's roles in the body include
e. all of these choices are correct
an increase in parathyroid hormone levels results in
a. increased rate of bone reabsorption
which of the following is correctly matched?
a. alkalosis - hypokalemia
most of the calcium in the body is in the
d. neromuscular excitability increases
the most common cause of hyperkalemia is
d. cellular injury or death
which of the following will the body begin to do in order to compensate for hyperkalemia?
e. increase aldosterone secretion
hyperkalemia is defined as
c. increase in plasma potassium level
the composition of extracellular fluid has little affect on intracellular fluid amounts
which of the following would be expected to cause hypoatermia?
d. decreased aldosterone production
oversection of aldosterone causes
increased ADH secretion could be stimulated by which of the following situations?
b. increased blood osmolality
atrial natriuretic hormone increases
a. urine volume
what characteristic of the plasma membrane is responsible for maintaining the difference between intracellular and extracellular fluid?
c. being selectively permeable
body fluid pH will rise dramatically when
b. large amounts of bicarbonate are ingested
as a result of hyperventilation
b. the plasma PCO2 level decreases
an increase in blood CO2 levels is followed by a ____ in H+ ions and a _____ in blood pH
d. increase, decrease
which of the following terms does not belong with the other three?
b. pH increases
mr. I.M.A. wreck's plasma pH is 7.2. which of the following indicates that the body is attempting to compensate and return the body pH to normal?
a. an increase in respiration rate
in renal compensation of acidosis,
c. H+ secretion increase; bicarbonate reabsorption increases
which of the following can play a role in buffering the pH of urine?
e. ammonia, bicarbonate ions and phosphate ions
the normal pH for blood plasma is
once alkalosis has occured, which of the following would you expect to happen?
c. retention of hydrogen ions by the kidney
hyposecretion of aldosterone would lead to
b. decreased secretion of hydrogen ions
when normal buffer mechanisms are overwhelmed by excessive numbers of hydrogen ions, which of the following will result?
a failing blood pH and a rising concentration of carbon dioxide due to emphysema, indicate
c. respiratory acidosis
ingesting large amounts of sodium bicarbonate can lead to
b. metabolic alkalosis
respiratory alkolsis can occur as a result of
prolonged vomiting of stomach contents will result in
b. metabolic alkalosis
which of the following regulatory mechanisms would be stimulated as a result of increased osmolality that results from a Na+ level of 152 mEq/L?
b. an increased release of ADH
the increase in extracellular osmolality would cause
a. water to move out of the cells
loss of water through diffusion and evaporation from the skin is called _____ and is important in _____ control
b. insensible perspiration; heat loss
elevated blood pressure under resting conditions results in increased urinary output because
e. baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion
youve been working outside in the hot sun and are dripping wet with sweat. your fluid intake has been minimal as you have been too busy to stop and get a drink. you would expect
d. ADH levels to increase
d. are regulated with Na+
decreased extracellular potassium levels cause
b. hyperpolarization of cell membranes
which of the following statements concerning potassium ions is false?
c. when aldsoterone levels are high, potassium secretion is low
a decrease in plasma osmolality would increase
d. urine production
the stimulus for secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone is increased
c. blood pressure in atria of heart
which of the following is NOT a principle sensor for thirst regulation?
d. mouth mucosa
the primary regulator of plasma sodium concentration is
c. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
which of the following is most likely to happen to a group of students who relax by drinking a pitcher of their favorite beverage?
a. an increase in urine volume
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
c. increases water reabsorption in the kidneys
which of the following fluid compartments contains the largest volume of water?
c. intracellular compartment
which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water?
synovial fluid is a part of which of the following fluid compartments?
the major route of excretion for sodium ions (under normal conditions) is the
when aldosterone is absent, sodium reabsorption in the nephron is
b. greatly decreased
as the rate of sweat production increase, the amount of sodium lost in the urine
receptors sensitive to changes in the osmolality of extracellular fluid are the
renin is released by
which of the following events occurs last?
c. sodium reabsorption by the kidney tubules
where is the highest concentration of bicarbonate ion found?
c. interstitial fluid
water moves back and forth across the plasma membrane by the process of
the cation that plays a major role in determining the osmotic pressure of the plasma is
one difference between the plasma and interstitial fluid is that the plasma has significantly more ____ than interstitial fluid
serum electrolyte concentrations are most often expressed as
the predominant extracellular anion is
the predominant intracellular cation is
the predominant extracellular cation is
the distribution of sodium and potassium ions between intracellular and extracellular compartment is
a. potassium mainly intracellular; sodium mainly extracellular
which of the following individuals would have the largest percentage of their bodyweight as water
a. a 7-month old female
which of the following people would most severely affected by prolonged vomiting?
a. 3-year-old male
extracellular fluid has a
c. higher sodium content than intracellular fluid
azetazolamide (diamox) is a diuretic. it functions by blocking the activity of carbonic anhydrase inside kidney tubule cells. this shows the formation of carbonic acid. by slowing the formation of hydrogen ions in the cells of the tubule, sodium reabsorption is also slowed. this results in the diuretic effect. select from the following list the possible side-effects of azetazolamide
e. 1, 2, 3, 4
the K+ level of 2.8 mEq/L indicates hypokalemia. low plasma K+ levels will cause
b. muscle weakness
bob trotts has an enteropathogenic e. coli infection resulting in sever diarrhea for 2 days. this could produce which of the following
a. 1, 3, 5, 6, 7