Developmental Psychology Final Exam

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1

fear when separated from attached individual; appears when attachments are forming and peaks around 14-18 months; a wary or fretful reaction that infants display when separated from their attached objects

separation anxiety

2

birth to 2-3 months; infants responsive to voices and faces; very young infants are responsive to voices, faces, and other social stimuli, but any human interests them. they do not yet show a clear preference for one person over another

undiscriminating social reponsiveness

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Secure attachment, anxious-resistant attachment, anxious-avoidant attachment, disorganized/disoriented attachment

attachment patterns

4

65-70% of infants, comfortable exploring and using mom as base (stay close and continuously monitor); proximity maintenance, safe haven, separation distress, secure base

secure attachment (B)

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10% of infants, ambivalent reaction to caregiver, very distressed when separated from mom, seek but resists physical contact with mom, wary of strangers (but may ignore)

anxious-resistant attachment (A)

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15% of infants, avoid contact with mom, do not explore, not wary of strangers; appear to be either denying need for affection or have learned not to express any emotions

anxious-avoidant attachment (C)

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15% of infants, most insecure, confusion about approaching or avoiding, few strategies for regulating negative emotions; associated with later emotional problems

disorganized/disoriented attachment (D)

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working with infant monkeys and surrogate mothers suggest importance of contact comfort; infants show preference to cuddly cloth mother over wire mom; comfort contact - pleasurable tactile sensation more powerful contribution to attachment than feeding or reduction of hunger

Harlow & Zimmerman (1959)

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infants in the oral stage of psychosexual development become attached to the individual who provides them with oral pleasure and the attachment bond will be most secure if a mother is relaxed and generous in her feeding practices

Freud's view of attachment

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Societies expectations concerning appropriate parenting can play a role in attachment

culture

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may lead to more social adeptness in later childhood

secure attachment

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related to positive emotional development and coping with stress

secure attachment

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locomotor, object, social, and pretend

types of play

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children stand idly, look around, or engage in apparently aimless activities such as pacing

unoccupied play

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children play alone, typically with objects, and appear to be highly involved in what they are doing

solitary play

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children watch others play, taking an active interest in and perhaps even talking to the players but not directly participating

onlooker play

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children play next to one another, doing much the same thing, but they interact little

parallel play

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children interact by swapping materials, conversing, or following each other's leads, but they are not united by the same goal

associative play

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children join forces to achieve a common goal; they act as a pair or group, dividing their labor and coordinating their activities in a meaningful way

cooperative play

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play in which one actor, object, or action symbolizes or stands for another

pretend play

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play in which children cooperate with caregivers or playmates to enact dramas

social pretend play

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methods for determining who is liked and disliked in a group

sociometric measures

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children in a classroom may be asked to nominate several classmates whom they like and several whom they dislike or to rate all their classmates in terms of their desirability as campanions

sociometric survey

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study demonstrated that adults' styles of attachment are related to the quality of their romantic relationships.

Hazan & Shaver (1987)

25

research on gender differences in math/cognitive ability have shown that

males outnumber females at the extremes(top performers and bottom performers) on cognitive ability tests

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females appear to understand gender-based activities ________ than males.

earlier

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_________ and ___________ view violations of gender roles most negatively.

kindergartners and adolescents

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sex reassignment before 18 months of age causes few adjustment problems, while reassignment after three years of age is very difficult

Money & Ehrhardt - the basis for concluding that there is a critical period for the establishment of gender identity

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the theory that becoming parents pressures male to be more "masculine" and females to be more "feminine"

parental imperative

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studies on perspective-taking indicate that it is not until a child attains concrete operational thinking that s/he is able to

appreciate that two people can have different view points, even with access to the same information

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distinguishing right from wrong, acting on the distinction between right and wrong, and experiencing pride when doing right and shame when doing wrong

morality

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perspective that is MOST concerned with the affective (emotional) component of moral development:

psychoanalytic theory

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an example of empathy would be

being afraid for the hero in a movie who is in danger

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the theoretical perspective that views a child's moral reasoning as more significant than their actual behavior in a moral situation

cognitive-developmental theory

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Buckle up, it's the law

reflects Kohlberg's conventional morality

36

evolutionary theorists have argued that it is in our genetic self-interest to be altruistic because:

helping our kin may allow our genes to be passed along

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it is an automatic response, it must occur within some critical period, and it is irreversible

characteristics of imprinting by a young fowl

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the theorist that would be MOST LIKELY to agree with the statement "parental impact is way over blown!"

Harris

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Displaying _________ would indicate the MOST advanced social-cognitive abilities.

goal-corrected partnership

40

the paradox concerning independent behavior in infants

it appears to require another person for an infant to feel confident about acting independently

41

studies of infants raised in deprived orphanages for the first eight or more months of their lives indicate that

children who are deprived of intellectual stimulation during the first six months of life often display long-term negative impact on their cognitive skills

42

a genetic female who was exposed to male sex hormones during the prenatal period and therefore developed male-like external genitals and some masculine behaviors

androgenized female

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the vicarious experiencing of another person's feelings

empathy

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a term meaning subject to authority and referring to the childhood beliefs that rules are handed down by authority figures and are sacred and unalterable and that wrongness should be judged on the basis of consequences rather than intentions, typical of children ages 6-10 years.

heteronomous morality

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the most mature Piagetian stage of morality in which rules are viewed as agreements between individuals that can be changed through a consensus of those individuals and in which the older child or adolescent pays more attention to intentions than to consequences in judging actions

autonomous morality

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Kolhberg's term for the fifth and sixth stages of moral reasoning, in which moral judgments are based on a more abstract understanding of democratic social contracts or on universal principles of justice that have validity apart from the views of particular authority figures

postconventional morality

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Kohlberg's term for the third and fourth stages of moral reasoning in which social values are internalized and judgments are based on a desire to gain approval or uphold law and social order

conventional morality

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Kohlberg's term for the first two stages of moral reasoning, in which society's rules are not yet internalized and judgments are based on the punishing or rewarding consequences of an act

preconventional morality

49

lacking any sense of morality; without standards of right and wrong

amoral

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children form a simple in-group/out-group schema based on gender, compare world to own sex-schema, interpret new information so it is consistent with schemata, often distort reality to fit schema

Gender schema theory

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mental organization of meaning of gender

gender schema

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gender-role development depends on stage-like changes in cognitive development, three stages-basic gender identity, gender stability, and gender consistency; criticism is that knowledge of anatomy alone not enough to ensure understanding of gender stability and consistency; problem: children learn gender-role stereotypes and show preference for same-sex activities long before gender stability and constancy are mastered

Kohlberg's Cognitive theory

53

by age two or three able to recognize males and females distinction

basic gender identity

54

understand that boys become men and girls become women

gender stability

55

realizes that one's own sex does not change

gender consistency

56

children pay closer attention to same-sex models, watch parents to determine gender-roles, children's picture books often depict males and females in stereotypical ways, television characters often reinforce stereotypic sex-role behavior, children who watch more television more likely to hold stereotypic views of men and women, strong traditional gender stereotypes found in video games

observational learning of gender development

57

differential reinforcement for sex-appropriate behaviors (boys get rewarded for male behavior, girls get rewarded for female behavior)

social learning theory

58

parents reinforce sex-appropriate behavior and reprimand sons for engaging in feminine behavior, parents provide differential discipline, parents have different emotions toward male and female children, parental behavior does have impact and may create self-fulfilling prophecy,

differential reinforcement

59

Freud emphasizes the phallic stage of psychosexual development, identification with same-sex parent to resolve conflicts, oedipus complex (boy's unconscious desire for mother), electra complex (girl's unconscious desire for father), identification leads to girls taking on feminine role and boys masculine role, due to castration-anxiety, boys more driven toward following traditional gender roles,

Psychoanalytic theory

60

non-human animals for evidence of biologically-based sex differences, studies of children exposed to "wrong hormones", androgenized females (exposed to excessive levels of "male associated" androgens) display male-like actions, as adolescents, androgenized females dated later, felt marriage should be delayed, and described themselves as homosexual or bisexual, testosterone levels may effect aggression, but experience can also impact by altering nervous system, while influential, biological factors alone do not dictate gender-role development

Biosocial theory (money & ehrhardt)

61

females sometimes display greater verbal abilities than males, males outperform females on tests of spatial ability, historically, males outperformed females on average tests of mathematical ability, females tend to score slightly higher grades in math classes, girls display greater memory abilities than boys, males are more physically and verbally aggressive then females, starting as early as 17 months

Maccoby & Jacklin classic study (1974)

62

universal aspects of morality that helped with adaptation, "survival of fittest" implies selfishness, altruistic behavior helps ensure family gene will be passed on, argues that we retain more immature forms of moral reasoning and use the one that best fits the situation, unlike Freud, views humans as predisposed to empathy

evolutionary theory (functions)

63

three year olds see pictures where a kid throws balls, intention: either to play with or hit another kid-crossed with outcome-kid caught and played with it or was hit by it, positive outcome: judged more favorable as Piaget believed, but even three year olds could distinguish intentions

Nelson study (1980)

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even six year olds can distinguish between: moral rules - hit, steal, lie; social conventions - staying in your seat at school

Turiel (2006)

65

affective, cognitive, and behavioral

three basic developmental components of morality

66

feelings concerning self and others

affective morality

67

thoughts of right and wrong

cognitive morality

68

our actions

behavioral morality

69

the understanding that people have mental states (feelings, desires, beliefs, intentions) and that these states underlie and help explain their behavior

theory of mind

70

a search for ultimate meaning in life that may or may not be carried out in the context of religion

spirituality

71

rigidity about gender stereotypes is especially high during the preschool years (around ages 4-7), but then decreases over the elementary school years

Damon (1977)

72

female rhesus monkeys exposed prenatally to the male hormone testosterone often:

threaten other monkeys, engage in rough-and-tumble play, and try to "mount" a partner as males do at the beginning of a sexual encounter

73

innate form of learning in which a young animal will follow and become attached to a moving object; automatic and irreversible

imprinting

74

time during which attachment is likely, and if it does not occur during this stage, it may never occur

sensitive period (fist three years)

75

a social equal who functions at a similar level of behavioral complexity

peer

76

argued that peers are more important than parents, uses behavioral genetics data and says that parental social impact cannot be separated from genetic impact of parents, most important socialization takes place outside home in peer groups

Judith Harris

77

the caregiver's attachment to the infant

bonding

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appears around three years of age, advanced cognitive skills allow for consideration of other people's goals in considering relationship behavior

goal-corrected partnership

79

method of assessing attachment involving child, parent, and stranger interacting in different combinations

strange situation

80

positive acts of helping reflecting concern for others

prosocial behavior

81

emotions felt when one does wrong or right

moral affect

82

take on moral standards of others

identification

83

thinking process underlying moral decisions

moral reasoning

84

preschool time when children show little understanding of rules and cannot be considered moral beings

premoral period