Biology II Final Exam Study guide
What are the six levels of organization?
atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs and organ systems
What are the two main body cavities and the major cavities within each?
Dorsal Body Cavity- Cranial cavity and spinal cavity
Ventral Body Cavity-superior thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity
the study of the internal workings of a body, to include both organs and structures.
the functions of an organism
Describe the major functions and organs in each organ system
Moves the limbs; allows facial expression
skeletal muscles, associated tendons
Removes nitrogen-containing wastes
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Is affected by thyroid gland removal
Controls the body with hormones
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands
Provides support for muscular system
bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, bone marrow
Delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues
heart, blood, blood vessels
Breaks down food into small particles
teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Protects organs from drying out
Protects deeper tissues from injury
skin, hair, sweat glands, nails
Protects the body, destroys bacteria
spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
female-ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands
male-testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum
Removes carbon dioxide from blood
Keeps blood supplies with oxygen
nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
What are the differences between the types of neurons?
or afferent neurons, form the afferent division of the PNS. They deliver information from sensory receptors to the CNS. The cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in peripheral sensory ganglia.
or efferent neurons, form the efferent division of the PNS. These neurons carry instructions from the CNS to peripheral effectors in a peripheral tissue, organ, or organ system.
or association neurons, outnumber all other types of neurons combined. These neurons are located entirely within the brain and spinal cord.
what is the path of the digestive process?