Human Ecosystem

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created 8 years ago by Noor_Khafizah
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-Describe the ecosystem of human body
updated 8 years ago by Noor_Khafizah
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microbiology
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Microbiome

All the genes of the host and microbiota

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Superorganism

Emerge when the gene-encoded metabolic processes of the host become integrated with those of the host

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Normal microbiota or microflora

Microbes regularly found at an anatomical site

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Protrophic

Can synthesize all amino acids and growth factors from simple carbohydrates

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Pathogenicity

Ability of parasite to inflict damage on the host and on the resistance of the host to the parasite

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Pathogens

Parasites that cause damage

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Virulence

Quantitative measure of pathgenicity.

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Infection

Growth of microorganisms in the host, whether or not the host is harmed

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Disease

Damage or injury to the host that impairs host function

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Sebum

Fluid secreted by oil glands.
It accumulates, providing hospitable environment for microbes

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Comedo

Plug of sebum and keratin in duct of oil gland It is a results from inflammatory response to sebum accumulation.

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Oropharynx

Division of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis

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Pathogenesis

Ability of microorganisms to initiate disease, includes entry, colonization, and growth in host, resulting in changes in host function and damage to host.

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Tissue specificity

Selectively adheres to cells in particular region of body

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Host specificity

Selectively adheres to different host

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Exotoxins

Toxins that released extracellularly. Highly toxin and often fatal. They are
1) Cytolytic toxins
2) A-B Toxins
c) Superantigen toxins

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Enterotoxins

Exotoxins that act on small intestine.

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Endotoxins

Toxins that are cell bound and released in large amounts only when cell lyse. Weakly toxinc and rarely fatal.

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Phagocytosis

Occur when pathogens breaks through physical and chemical barriers. (body secretions)

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Germ Free Animals

Animals that have no microorganisms living in or on it

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Gnotobiotic Animals

A microbiologically monitored environment or animal that is germ-free (axenic) or in which the indentities of all microbiota are known.

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Specific pathogen-free animal (SPF)

Laboratory animals that are guaranteed free of particular pathogens

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Commensalism

One symbiont (the commensal ) benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor harmed. Both can usually live separately.

An example is E. coli in the human intestine. Nonpathogenic strains of E. coli are commonly found in the human intestine. The bacterium benefits from the constant supply of nutrients, but the human host suffers no ill effects. Many commensals make up the normal microbiota of the human body.

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Mutualism

A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms receive a benefit.

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Parasitism

In parasitism, one organisms lives at the expense or harm of another. Many parasitic organisms are involved in diseases. A particular parasite may have several different hosts:

Intermediate hosts - serve as hosts for certain developmental stages

Transfer host - not involved in the life cycle, but needed to transfer to a new host

Definitive host - the host where sexual maturity is reached or reproduction takes place

There are many different kinds of parasites. Many bacteria can be parasites, as well as fungi, protozoa, and helminthes. All viruses are parasites.

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Antagonism

One organism produces a substance which is detrimental to another.

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Competition

Both organisms are competing for the same ecological niche or nutrients. This relationship is usually detrimental to both organisms because neither can achieve optimal growth due to limitations on the available nutrients due to the presence of the other.

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Alpha-hemolytic streptococci can be tested using?

Blood agar (haemolysis)

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Proteus mirabilis

Cause urinary tract infections

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Hyaluronidase

Enzyme to break down acids which use as an anti ageing

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Dysentery

diarrhea with blood

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Bifidobacteria

A lactic acid bacteria which found in breast feed babies

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Parasites

Little or no harmful effect

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Mucous membranes

Single or multiple layers of epithelial cells coated with protective layers of mucus (glycoproteon) to protect against invasion

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Eccrine glands

Sweat glands on plams, fingers, pads, soles of feet

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Apocrine glands

Sweat glands underarm and genital regions

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Sebaceous gland

Associate with hair follicles and secrete lubricant fluid.

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Lactoperoxidase

Enzyme in saliva

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Plaque

Growth and formation of microcolonies on teeth surface

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Dental caries

Accumulation of dental plaque

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Siderophore

An iron-chelating compound.

E.g. E.coli produce aerobactin (siderophore) to removes iron bound to transferrin

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Streptokinase

A fibrinolytic substance that dissolve fibrin clots

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Coagulase

Cause fibrin clotting to protect microorganism from attack by host cells