All the genes of the host and microbiota
Emerge when the gene-encoded metabolic processes of the host become integrated with those of the host
Normal microbiota or microflora
Microbes regularly found at an anatomical site
Can synthesize all amino acids and growth factors from simple carbohydrates
Ability of parasite to inflict damage on the host and on the resistance of the host to the parasite
Parasites that cause damage
Quantitative measure of pathgenicity.
Growth of microorganisms in the host, whether or not the host is harmed
Damage or injury to the host that impairs host function
Fluid secreted by oil glands.
It accumulates, providing hospitable environment for microbes
Plug of sebum and keratin in duct of oil gland It is a results from inflammatory response to sebum accumulation.
Division of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and the upper edge of the epiglottis
Ability of microorganisms to initiate disease, includes entry, colonization, and growth in host, resulting in changes in host function and damage to host.
Selectively adheres to cells in particular region of body
Selectively adheres to different host
Toxins that released extracellularly. Highly toxin and often fatal. They are
1) Cytolytic toxins
2) A-B Toxins
c) Superantigen toxins
Exotoxins that act on small intestine.
Toxins that are cell bound and released in large amounts only when cell lyse. Weakly toxinc and rarely fatal.
Occur when pathogens breaks through physical and chemical barriers. (body secretions)
Germ Free Animals
Animals that have no microorganisms living in or on it
A microbiologically monitored environment or animal that is germ-free (axenic) or in which the indentities of all microbiota are known.
Specific pathogen-free animal (SPF)
Laboratory animals that are guaranteed free of particular pathogens
One symbiont (the commensal ) benefits from the relationship while the other is neither helped nor harmed. Both can usually live separately.
An example is E. coli in the human intestine. Nonpathogenic strains of E. coli are commonly found in the human intestine. The bacterium benefits from the constant supply of nutrients, but the human host suffers no ill effects. Many commensals make up the normal microbiota of the human body.
A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms receive a benefit.
In parasitism, one organisms lives at the expense or harm of another. Many parasitic organisms are involved in diseases. A particular parasite may have several different hosts:
Intermediate hosts - serve as hosts for certain developmental stages
Transfer host - not involved in the life cycle, but needed to transfer to a new host
Definitive host - the host where sexual maturity is reached or reproduction takes place
There are many different kinds of parasites. Many bacteria can be parasites, as well as fungi, protozoa, and helminthes. All viruses are parasites.
One organism produces a substance which is detrimental to another.
Both organisms are competing for the same ecological niche or nutrients. This relationship is usually detrimental to both organisms because neither can achieve optimal growth due to limitations on the available nutrients due to the presence of the other.
Alpha-hemolytic streptococci can be tested using?
Blood agar (haemolysis)
Cause urinary tract infections
Enzyme to break down acids which use as an anti ageing
diarrhea with blood
A lactic acid bacteria which found in breast feed babies
Little or no harmful effect
Single or multiple layers of epithelial cells coated with protective layers of mucus (glycoproteon) to protect against invasion
Sweat glands on plams, fingers, pads, soles of feet
Sweat glands underarm and genital regions
Associate with hair follicles and secrete lubricant fluid.
Enzyme in saliva
Growth and formation of microcolonies on teeth surface
Accumulation of dental plaque
An iron-chelating compound.
E.g. E.coli produce aerobactin (siderophore) to removes iron bound to transferrin
A fibrinolytic substance that dissolve fibrin clots
Cause fibrin clotting to protect microorganism from attack by host cells