human anatomy chapter 8

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Human Anatomy
Chapter 8
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1

Joints are...

connections between bones that may or may not permit movement

2

two bones may be in direct contact w/ each other or separated by... (3)

1. cartilage
2. fluid
3. fibrous tissue

3

joints are classified on... (2)

1. function
- range of motion
2. structure
- makeup of the joint

4

joint classification
1. range of motion (3)

1. synarthrosis
2. amphiarthrosis
3. diarthrosis

5

1. synarthrosis
2. amphiarthrosis
3. diarthrosis

1. immovable
2. slightly movable
3. freely movable

6

1. synarthrosis
- include (4)

A. sutures
B. gomphosis
C. synchondrosis
D. synostosis

7

1. synarthrosis
A. surutes
B. gomphosis
C. synchondrosis
D. synostosis

A. joints found only in the skull. bones are interlocked together
B. joint between teeth and jaw bones. Periodontal ligaments of the teeth
C. joint within epiphysis of bone. Binds the diaphysis to the epiphysis
D. joint between two fused bones. Fusion of the three coxal bones

8

2. Amphiarthrosis

A. Syndesmosis
B. Symphysis

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2. Amphiarthrosis
A. syndesmosis
B.symphysis

A. ligaments that connect two bones but limit their motion. Between the radius and ulna, Between the tibia and fibula
B. bones are separated by a wedge or pad of cartilage. Between the pubic bones of the two coxal bones

10

3. Diarthroses
A. also called...
B. typically found...
C. examples

A. synovial joints
B. at the ends of long bones
C. shoulder, elbow, hip, knee

11

Characteristics of synovial joints
(6)

1. A joint capsule
2. The presence of articular cartilages
3. A joint cavity with synovial fluid
4. A synovial membrane
5. Accessory structures (cartilage, ligaments, 6. 6. tendons, bursae sacs)
7. Sensory nerves and blood vessels

12

fibrous joints (2)

1. sutures
2. syndesmosomes

13

Cartilaginous joints (4)

1. symphyses
2. intervertebral discs
3. synchondroses
4. epiphyseal plates

14

synovial joints

1. synovial membrane
2. synovial cavity w/ synovial fluid
3. articular cartilage (hyaline)
4. articular capsule (reinforced by ligaments)

15
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1. bursa 2. joint capsule
3. synovial membrane 4. meniscus
5. intracapsular ligament 6.joint cavity
7. patellar ligament 8. articular cartilage

16

joints can be classified by their make up (4)

1. bony fusion (fusion to frontal bone)
2. fibrous joint (skull sutures)
3. cartilaginous joint (pubic symphysis)
4. synovial joint (ball and socket joints and hinge joints)

17

function of synovial fluid (3)

1. Lubricates
2. Nourishes chondrocytes
3. Acts as shock absorber

18
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1. lateral meniscus 2. medial meniscus
3. anterior cruciate ligament
4. posterior cruciate ligament
5. tibial collateral ligament
6. fibular collateral ligament

19

types of movement (4.

1. linear movements
2. angular movements
3. rotation
4. special movements

20
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1. initial position
2. linear motion
3. angular motion
4. circumduction
5. rotation

21

movement types
1. linear movement
-examples (3)
2. Angular movements
- examples (2)

1. two bones gliding past each other
- Carpal/carpal, tarsal/tarsal, clavicle/sternum
2. abduction/adduction, flexion/extendion

22

movement types
3. Rotational movements
4. special movements
- examples (6)

3. pronation/supination
4. inversion/eversion, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, lateral flexion, protraction/retraction, opposition, depression/elevation

23

structural classification of joints (6)

1. plane joints 4. condylar joints
2. hinge joints 5. saddle joints
3. pivot joints 6. ball and socket joints

24

structural classification of joints
1. plane joints
2. hinge joints
3. pivot joints

1. gliding joints
A. Nonaxial (glides only in one direction)
B. Multiaxial (glides in all directions
2. Flexion and extension
3. Rotational movements

25

structural classification of joints
1. plane joints examples
2. hing joints examples
3. pivot joints examples

1. carpal/carpal, tarsal/tarsal, vertebrae/vertebrae, clavicle/sternum
2. elbow and knee
3. atlas/axis

26

structural classification of joints
4. condylar joints
5. saddle joints
6. ball and socket joints

1. Oval articular surface on one bone articulates with a depression on another bone
2. Biaxial joints that allow some circumduction
3. Triaxial joints

27

structural classification of joints
4. condylar joints examples
5. saddle joints examples
6. ball and socket joints examples

4. Radius/capitulum, Radius/carpals, Phalanges/metacarpals, Phalanges/metatarsals
5. Pollex/metacarpal
6. Shoulder joint, Hip joint

28

Representive articulations
(2)

1. Temporamandibular joint (TMJ)
2. Intervertebral articulations

29

Representive articulations
1. Temporalmandibular joint
-Ligaments involved (3)

1. stylomandibular ligament
2. lateral ligament
3. sphenomandibular ligament

30

representative articulations
1. Temporalmandibular joint
A. stylomandibular ligament
B. lateral ligament
C. sphenomandibular

1. Connects the tips of the spinous processes together
2. Connects zygomatic arch to the mandibular condyle
3. Connects the sphenoidal spine to the medial side of the ramus

31
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1. spehnomandibular ligament
2. stylomandibular ligament
3. lateral ligament

32
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1. abduction
2. adduction

33
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1. flexion
2. extension

34
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1. supination
2. pronation

35
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1. eversion
2. inversion

36
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1. dorsiflexion
2. plantar flexion

37
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lateral flexion of vertebral column

38
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1. retraction
2. protraction

39
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opposition

40
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1. depression
2. elevation

41

representative articulations
2. intervertebral articulations (2)

1. Supraspinous ligament
2. Interspinous ligament