A&P Final Practical

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1

central nervous system (CNS)

brain & spinal cord, retina

2

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

somatic nervous system, autonomic nervous system, and sense organs

3

neuron

nerve cell

4

ganglia

neuron cell bodies in the PNS that cluster together in masses

5

axons

cytoplasmic extensions of the neuron
carry impulses away from the cell
each neuron only has one

6

dendrites

carry impulses toward the cell body
most neurons have many

7

nissl body

the rough endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body

8

axon hillock

area of the cell body that tapers to form the axon

9

schwann cells

form layers of white lipid cell membrane around the axon

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myelin sheath

layer of white lipid cell membrane around the axon

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nuerilemma

the outer layer of neurilemmocytes

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nodes od ranvier

gaps in the myelin sheath between adjacent schwann cells

13

motor end plate

the junction between a telodendrion and a skeletal muscle fiber

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telodendrion

terminal branching of axons

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Cranial nerve I

olfactory

16

Olfactory nerve function

smell
purely sensory

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cranial nerve II

optic

18

Optic nerve function

vision (adjusting lens and constricting pupil)
purely sensory

19

Cranial nerve III

oculomotor

20

Oculomotor nerve function

movement of the eyeball, elevation of upper eyelid, constriction of pupil, focusing by lens (accommodation)
primarily motor

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Cranial nerve IV

trochlear

22

Trochlear nerve function

eye movements (down and out)

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Cranial nerve V

trigeminal

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Trigeminal nerve function

chewing, conveys general senses from tongue (not taste), cornea, nasal cavity, front of scalp, upper eyelid, conjunctive, lacrimal gland, cheek, upper lip, upper teeth, mucosa of nasal cavity, palate, & parts of pharynx.

25

Cranial nerve VI

abducens

26

Abducens nerve function

adbuction of the eye (lateral movement)

27

cranial nerve VII

facial

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facial nerve function

taste, salivation, lacrimation, movement of muscles of facial expression

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cranial nerve VIII

vestibulocochlear : where cochlear and vestibular nerve come together

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Vestibulocochlear nerve function

hearing & equilibrium
primarily sensory

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crainial nerve IX

glossopharyngeal

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Glossopharyngeal nerve function

taste, other sensations of tongue, secretion of saliva, swallowing

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cranial nerve X

vagus

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Vagus nerve function

swallowing, monitors oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood, senses blood pressure, other visceral activities of affected systems

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cranial nerve XI

accessory

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Accessory nerve function

voice production (larynx), muscle sense, movement of head, & shoulders

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cranial nerve XII

hypoglossal

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Hypoglossal nerve function

movements of the tongue during speech, swallowing, and muscle sense

39

hydrocephalus

"water on the brain". normally CSF should form, circulate, and drain at a constant rate. this occurs when there is either an over production or blockage of CSF. in infants, the fontanels act as "safety valves" and allow for expansion of the brain. in adults, there is no space in the cranial vault for the brain to swell, leading to increased intracranial pressure, and possibly neurologic danage

40

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges. it can result from infection by microorganisms and can lead to life-threatening infection of the brain itself (encephalitis) symptoms may include head ache, neck stiffness, chills, fever, and disorientation. can be diagnosed by a spinal tap. if left untreated, it can lead to delirium, coma, convulsions, and death within hours to days

41

concussion

a traumatic brain injury that results from a blow to the head. minor ones can cause altered mental status and temporary loss of consciousness, but usually do not have long term effects. more severe ones can lead to serious damage and bruising of the brain (contusion). severe head injuries can injure cranial vessels and cause hemorrhaging. when trauma occurs to the arteries, bleeding occurs rapidly due to high arterial blood pressure; trauma to the veins results in bleeding that occurs more slowly due to the lower venous pressure

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sclera

white part of the eye

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cornea

transparent portion of the sclera

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iris

colored portion of the eye containing muscles

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pupil

opening in the center of the iris

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aqueous humor

watery fluid that fills the anterior cavity of the eye

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lens

clear or opaque oval structure

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choroid

middle layer of tissue in the eye

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vitreous humor

gel like substance behind the lens that helps to maintain the shape of the eye

50

retina

photosensitive layer that contains specialized nerve cells called rods and cones

51

rods

visual receptors sensitive to low intensity light that discriminate between shades of light and dark and function in the perception of shapes and movement

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cones

visual receptors specialized for color perception and visual acuity (sharpness of vision)

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fovea centralis

area of sharpest vision in center of retina which contains the highest concentration of cones

54

optic disk (blind spot)

area where optic nerve leaves the eye (has no visual receptors)

55

lacrimal glands

produces tears

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conjunctiva

covering over the sclera and inner surface of the eyelids

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astigmatism

irregular curvature of the eyeball

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cataracts

opaque regions in the lens

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emmetropia

normal vision

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myopia

nearsightedness

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hypermetropia

farsightedness

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presbyopia

loss of the ability of the lens to focus closely. caused by a loss of flexibility of the lens, which occurs around age 40 to every person. there is no prevention for this

63

color blindness

sex-linked inherited condition occurring primarily in males s

64

conjunctivitis

inflammation of the conjunctiva (aka pink eye)

65

glaucoma

increase in pressure due to an overproduction of aqueous humor or blockage of the scleral venous sinus

66

pinna (auricle)

outer portion of the ear

67

external auditory meatus

canal that runs from pinna to the tympanic membrane

68

tragus

cartilage flap which protects the external auditory meatus

69

helix

upper curved area of the pinna

70

earlobe

fatty tissue without any cartilage

71

tympanic membrane

aka eardrum
thin membrane that seperates the middle ear from the outer ear ; it vibrates when sound waves reach it

72

cerumen

aka earwax
along with hairs it helps to prevent foreign substances fro entering the ear and damaging the tympanic membrane

73

middle ear

air filled cavity between the outer ear and inner ear

74

ossicles

ear bones (malleus, incus, and stapes)

75

eustachian tube (auditory tube)

tube that connects middle ear with throat (allows equalization of air pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane.

76

inner ear

located within the temporal bone; it contains semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea

77

semicircular canals

three canals that lie at right angles to each other which have expanded bases called ampullae. the receptors of these provide sensations of rotation

78

vestibule

contains 2 membranous sacs (utricle & saccule) that are involved in equilibrium, sensations of gravity, and linear acceleration

79

cochlea

coiled (snail shaped) structure involved in hearing. divided by the vestibular membrane and the basilar membrane into 3 channels: the scala media, scala vestibule, and the scala tympani

80

hair cells

basic receptors of the inner ear that provide information about the direction and strength of varied mechanical stimuli

81

oval window

superior boney wall opening to tympanic cavity

82

round window

inferior boney wall opening to the tympanic cavity

83

cochlear nerve

a division of the vestibulocochlear nerve
its afferent fibers coil about the base of the hair cells

84

vestibular nerve

hair cells synapse with these fibers whose endings coil around their bases
a division of the vestibulocochlear nerve

85

Location of Olfactory nerve I

through the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to synapse in the olfactory bulbs

86

Location of Optic nerve II

fibers of the retina of the eye; form optic nerve and pass through optic canal

87

location for Oculomotor nerve III

exits the skull from the superior orbital fissure

88

Location of vestibulocochlear nerve VIII

housed in the temporal bone through the internal acoustic meatus to enter the pons

89

Testing for Olfactory nerve I

person is asked to sniff aromatic substances & asked to identify each (ex. oil of cloves & vanilla)

90

Testing for Optic nerve II

vision & visual field: eye chart & testing the point at which the person sees an object moving in the visual field

viewed by opthalmoscope to detect papilledema & observe blood vessels

91

Testing for oculomotor nerve III

pupils examined for size & shape

92

Testing for vestibulocholear nerve VIII

hearing is checked by air & bone conduction using a tuning fork