human anatomy chapter 5

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the skeletal system is made of?

A. skeletal bones B. cartilage
C. Ligaments D. Connective Tissue


Functions of the skeletal system

1. Support 2. Storage of mineral 3. Blood cell production 4. leverage 5. protection


A. is B. function (4)

A.outer bone lining
B. i. isolates and protects the bone from surrounding tissue
ii. provides a route and a place for attachment for circulatory and nervous supply
iii. actively participates in bone growth and repair
iv. attaches bone to CT network of the deep fascia


A. is? B. lines...
C. consists of D. actively involved in

A. inner bone lining
B. medullary cavity
C. osteoprogenitor cells
D. repair and growth


Matrix of Bone

calcium phosphate


hydroxyapatite crystals

calcuium phosphates turn into this to resist compression


Histological organization of mature bone

1. Collagen Fibers
2. Bone Cells (ONLY 2% OF BONE MASS)


The Histological organization of Mature Bone:
1. Collagen fibers
A. make up
B. contribute to
C. ___ and ___ make bone tissue extremely strong

A. 2/3 of bone matrix
B. the tensile strength of bone
c. Collagen; hydroxyapatite


Structure of bone
1. osteocytes
A. are?
B. maintain

A. mature bone cells
B. the protein and mineral content of the matrix


Structure of bone
2. Osteoblasts
A. are? B. found on? C. Produce?
D. ___ are involved in making new bone. this process is called___?
E. ___ can convert to ____.

A. immature bone cells
B. the inne rand outer surfaces of bones
C. osteiod, which is involved in making the matrix
D. osteoblasts; osteogenesis
E. osteoblasts; osteocytes


structure of bone
3. osteoprogenitor cells
A. found on? B. Differentiate to?
C. heavily involved in?

A. the inner and outer surfaces of bones
B. form new osteoblasts
C. the repair of bones after a break


structure of bone
4. osteoclasts
A. secerte?
B. process called?

A. acids, which dissolve bone causing a release of stored calcium and phosphate ions into the blood.
B. osteolysis


What are the two types of osseus tissue?

1. Compact Bone
2. Spongy Bone


types of bone tissue
1. compact bone
A. are? B. forms? C. consists of?
D. medullary cavity consists of?

A. dense and solid
B. the walls of bone outlining the medullary cavity
C. osteons
D. bone marrow


types of bone tissue
2. spongy bone
A. is?
B. trabeculae: are arranged in? C. form?
D. creates the?

A. an open network of plates
B. in parallel struts.
C. branching plates and an open network
D. lightweight nature of bones


functional differences
1. Compact Bone
A. conducts stress...
B. Generates...
C. weak strength when...

A. from one area of body to another area
B. tremendous strength from end to end
C. when stress is applied to the side


functional differences
2. Spongy Bone
A. trabeculae create...

A. strength to deal with stress from the side.

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A. epiphysis B. metaphysis C. diaphysis D. metaphysis E. epiphysis F. Spongy bone
G. compact bone H. medulary cavity
I. articular surface of head of femur


Periosteum and Tendons

Tendons are cemented into the lamellae by osteoblasts, making the part of bone.



when cartilage cells will be replaced by bone cells



Bone Formation



the deposition of calcium ions into the bone tissue


two types of ossification
1. Intramembranous ossification

involved in the development of clavicle, mandible, skull, and face


two types of ossification
2. Endochondral ossification

involved in the development of limbs, vertebrae, and hips


two types of ossification

1. intramembranous ossification
2. endochondral ossification


Intramembranous ossification
steps (6)

1. mesenchymal cells differentiate to form osteoblasts
2. osteoblasts begin secreting a matrix
3. osteoblasts become trapped in thhe matrix
4. osteoblasts differentiate and form osteocytes
5. more osteoblasts are produced, thus move outward
6. eventually compact bone is formed


endochondral ossification
steps (1-4)

1. the developing bone begins as cartilage cells
2. cartilage matrix grows inward (interstitial growth)
3. cartilage matrix grows outward (appositional growth)
4. blood vessels grow around the cartilage


endochondral ossification
steps (5-9)

5. Perichondrial cells convert to osteoblasts
6. osteoblasts develop a superficial layer of bone around the cartilage
7. blood vessels penetrate the cartilage
8. osteoblasts begin to develop spongy bone in the diaphysis
9. this becomes the primary center of ossification


endochondral ossification
steps (10-13)

10. the cartilage near the epiphysis converts to bone
11. blood vessels penetrate the epiphysis
12. osteoblasts begin to develop spongy bone in the epiphysis
13. epiphysis becomes the secondary center of ossification


epiphysial plate
2. AKA?
3. cartilage near the diaphysis is
4. the width of this zone...

1. area of in the metaphysis
2. Epiphyseal cartilage
3. converted to bone
4. gets narrower as we age

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1. As the cartilage enlarges, chondrocytes near the center of the shaft increase greatly in size. The matrix is reduced to a series of small struts that soon begin to calcify. The enlarged chondrocytes then die and disintegrate, leaving cavities within the cartilage.
2. Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage, and the cells of the perichondrium convert to osteoblasts. The shaft of the cartilage then becomes ensheathed in a superficial layer of bone.

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3. Blood vessels penetrate the cartilage and invade the central region. Fibroblasts migrating with the blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts and begin producing spongy bone at a primary center of ossification. Bone formation then spreads along the shaft toward both ends.
4.Remodeling occurs as growth continues, creating a medullary cavity. The bone of the shaft becomes thicker, and the cartilage near each epiphysis is replaced by shafts of bone. Further growth involves increases in length (Steps 5 and 6) and diameter (see Figure 5.9).

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5. Capillaries and osteoblasts migrate into the epiphyses, creating secondary ossification centers.
6. Soon the epiphyses are filled with spongy bone. An articular cartilage remains exposed to the joint cavity; over time it will be reduced to a thin superficial layer. At each metaphysis, an epiphyseal cartilage separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis.


Enlarging the diameter of bone
1. called
2. blood vessels that run parallel to the bone becomes...
3.____ begin to form
4. each____ has

1. appositional growth
2. surrounded by bone cells
3. "tunnels"
4. "tunnel", a blood vessel in it

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1. Bone formation at the surface of the bone produces ridges that parallel a blood vessel.
2. The ridges enlarge and create a deep pocket.
3. The ridges meet and fuse, trapping the vessel inside the bone.

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4. Bone deposition proceeds inward toward the vessel, beginning the creation of a typical osteon.
5. Additional circumferential lamellae are deposited and the bone continues to increase in diameter.
6. Osteon is complete with new central canal around blood vessel. Second blood vessel becomes enclosed.


Four major sets of blood vessels associated with the long bones

1. nutrient vessels
2. metaphyseal vessels
3. Epiphyseal vessels
4. periosteal vessels


four major blood vessels: long bones
1. Nutrient Vessels
A. enters...
B. Re-enters...

A. the diaphysis and branch toward the epiphysis
B. the compact bone leading to the central canals of the osteons.


Four major blood vessels: long bones
2. Metaphyseal Vessels
3. Epiphyseal Vessels
4. Periosteal Vessels

2. Supply nutrients to the diaphyseal edge of the epiphysis
3. supply nutrients to the medullary cavities of the epiphysis
4. supply nutrients to the superficial osteons


factors regulating bone growth

1. nutrition 2. calcium ions 3. phosphate ions
4. citrate 5. carbonate ions 6. magnesium ions
7. sodium ions 8. vitamins A,C,D 9. hormones


factors regulating bone growth
9. Hormones: parathyroid gland
Release_A___ -> stimulates__B__
-> stimulates__C__ -> Increases_D___

A. parathyroid hormone
B. osteoclasts
C. osteoblasts
D. calcium ion absorption from the small intestine to the blood.


factors regulating growth
9. hormones: Thyroid gland 1
Release__A__ -> Inhibit__B__ -> Removes __C__

A. Calcitonin
B. osteoclasts
C. calcium ions from blood and adds in to bone


factors regulating growth
9. Hormones: thyroid gland 2
releases__A__ -> Maintains __B__

A. thyroxine (T4)
B. normal activity of the epiphyseal cartilage


factors regulating bone growth
9. Hormones: pituitary gland
Releases__A__ -> Maintains__B__

A. growth hormone (somatotropin)
B. normal activity of the epiphyseal cartilage


Aging and the skeletal System

1. When we’re young, osteoblast activity balances with osteoclast activity
2. When we get older, osteoblast activity slows faster than osteoclast activity
3. When osteoclast activity is faster than osteoblast activity, bones become porous
4. Estrogen keeps osteoclast activity under control


Aging and the skeletal system: Women
1. As women age,
2. osteoclast control is
A. osteoclast are
3. bone becomes
A. this is

1. estrogen levels drop
2. lost
A. overactive
3. porous
A. osteoporosis


Bone maintenance, remodeling, and repair
When a bone is broken...(4)

1. bleeding occurs
2. A network of spongy bone forms
3. Osteoblasts are overly activated, thus resulting in enlarged callused area
4. This area is now stronger and thicker than normal bone

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1. Immediately after the fracture, extensive bleeding occurs. Over a period of several hours, a large blood clot, or fracture hematoma, develops.
2.An internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone units the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges.

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3. The cartilage of the external callus has been replaced by bone, and struts of spongy bone now unite the broken ends. Fragments of dead bone and the areas of bone closest to the break have been removed and replaced.
4. A swelling initially marks the location of the fracture. Over time, this region will be remodeled, and little evidence of the fracture will remain.


Seven broad categories of bones according to their shape

1. sutural bones 2. irregular bones
3. short bones 4. pneumatized bones
5. flat bones 6. long bones
7. sesamoid bones

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1. sutural bones 2. irregular bones
3. short bones 4. pneumatized bones
5. flat bones 6. long bones
7. sesamoid bones


Bone markings include: (5)

1. projections 2. depressions
3. fissures 4. foramina
5. canals (meatuses)

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1. trochanter 2. head 3. Neck
4. facet 5. tubercle 6. condyle

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1. fissure 2. ramus
3. process 4. foramen

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1. canal 2. sinuses 3. meatus

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1. tubercle 2. head 3. sulcus
4. neck 5. tuberosity 6. fossa
7. trochlea 8. condyle

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1. spine 2. line 3. foramen
4. crest 5. fossa 6. ramus