Human Anatomy & Physiology: Final Lab Practical Flashcards


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created 10 years ago by erinagray
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anatomy and physiology i, science, life sciences, human anatomy & physiology
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1

Standing erect. Feet together with the toes pointing forward. Head is directed forward. Arms hang at the side in a somewhat unnatural position with the palms of the hands facing forward.

Anatomical position

2

Toward the front of the body.(Chest side)

Anterior

3

Toward the back side of the body.

Posterior

4

The eyes are located ________ on the head

Anterior

5

The vertebral column is _______ to the head.

Posterior

6

Toward the front of the body Vs Toward the back side of the body

Anterior Vs Posterior

7

Front of the body and is divided into the Thoracic cavity(chest) and the Abdominopelvic(abdominal and pelvic cavity).

Ventral(Anterior)

8

Back side of the body and contains the Cranial and Spinal Cavity.

Dorsal(Posterior) Cavity

9

The stomach is _______ to the spine

Ventral(Anterior)

10

The spine is ______ to the stomach

Dorsal(Posterior)

11

Away from the midline of the body

Lateral

12

Toward the midline of the body.

Medial

13

The eyes are _____ to the nose

Lateral

14

The nose is located ____ to the ears

Medial

15

Away from the midline of the body Vs Toward the midline of the body

Lateral Vs Medial

16

Upper or above

Superior

17

Lower or below

Inferior

18

The heart is _____ to the diaphragm

Superior

19

The stomach is ______ to the diaphragm

Inferior

20

Upper or above Vs Lower or below

Superior Vs Inferior

21

Closest to the point of origin or trunk of the body; closest to the trunk

Proximal

22

Away from a reference point(extremity); or away from the trunk

Distal

23

The Shoulder is _____ to the hand

Proximal

24

The toes are ______ to the knee

Distal

25

Closest to the point of origin or trunk of the body Vs Away from a reference point(extremity)

Proximal Vs Distal

26

Furtherest from the body's surface

Deep

27

Towards the body's surface

Superficial

28

The skeletal muscles are _____ to the skin

Deep

29

The skin is a ______ organ of the body

Superficial

30

Furtherest from the body's surface Vs Towards the body's surface

Deep Vs Superficial

31

Used relative to each other and tells us where some structure is located in relation to another structure

Anatomical Directional Terms

32

List the three planes(sections) of the body

Coronal, Transverse, Sagittal planes

33

A vertical cut that divides the body into front and back

Coronal(frontal) Plane

34

A horizontal cut that divides the body into upper and lower sections

Transverse Plane

35

A plane passed through the body so that the body is sectioned lengthwise(longitudinally) into equal right and left parts.

Sagittal Plane

36

A section in the body that passes through the midline of the body

midsagittal

37

A section or cut in the body that is off to one side of the midline

Parasagittal

38

The organs of the body are contained within two main cavities within the body

Dorsal and Ventral Cavity

39

Is divided into two major subdivision cavities called the Cranial and Spinal Cavity

Dorsal Cavity

40

Is divided into two major subdivision cavities called the Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Cavity

Ventral Cavity

41

Separates the thoracic Cavity from the Abdominopelvic Cavity

Diaphragm

42

The thoracic cavity contains two separate cavities

Pleural Cavity and Pericardial Cavity

43

The ____ surrounds the lungs

Pleural

44

The ______ surrounds the Heart

Pericardial

45

Mediastinum, Pleural Cavity, and Pericardial cavity's are in what major cavity

Thoracic Cavity

46

The Abdominal and Pelvic cavity's are in what major cavity

Abdominopelvic Cavity

47

The Pericardium membrane, and Pleura membranes are in what major cavity

Thoracic Cavity

48

The Peritoneum membrane is in what major cavity

Abdominopelvic Cavity

49

Is surrounded by the ribs and muscles in the chest

Thoracic Cavity

50

Contains the pericardial cavity which encloses the heart and also surrounds the remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea and others)

mediastinum

51

The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by a thin, double-layered membrane called the _______?

serosa (serous membrane)

52

Part of the membrane lining the cavity walls

Parietal serosa

53

Is the inside or folded in part of the parietal serosa that covers the organs in the cavity

Visceral serosa

54

fluid within the potential space between the two membranes that is secreted by both membranes

serous fluid

55

Membrane that lines the pericardial cavity

Parietal Pericardium

56

membrane that lies directly on the heart

Visceral Pericardium

57

Membrane that lines the thoracic cavity

Parietal Pleura

58

Membrane that lies directly on the lungs

Visceral Pleura

59

Membrane that lies directly on the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity

Visceral Peritoneum

60

Membrane that covers the walls of the abdominopelvic cavity

Parietal peritoneum

61

Brain is in the ____ cavity

Cranial Cavity

62

Lungs and heart are in ____ cavity

Thoracic Cavity

63

Liver, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen, stomach, pancreas, Large Intestine, Small Intestine and bladder are in ____ cavity

Abdominopelvic cavity

64

What is the plane sectioning of the brain

Sagittal Plane

65

What plane or sectioning of the Spinal Cord

Transverse/horizontal Plane

66

The Kidney could be sectioned into what plane to get a front and back section

Coronal/Frontal Plane

67

The Heart is in the _____ cavity surrounded by the _____ membrane

Thoracic Cavity, Pericardium membrane

68

The kidney's are located in the _____ cavity surrounded by the _______ membrane

Abdominopelvic Cavity, Peritoneum membrane

69

The Lungs are located in the _____ cavity surrounded by the _____ membrane

Thoracic Cavity, Pleura membrane

70

The Liver is located in the ______ cavity surrounded by the ______ membrane

Abdominal Cavity, Peritoneum membrane

71

The bladder is located in the ______ cavity surrounded by the _______ membrane

Pelvic Cavity, parietal peritoneum membrane

72
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What structure is the yellow organ in this picutre?

Adrenal Gland

73

What is one function of the adrenal gland?

makes epinepherine

74
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What is the organ numbered 12 in this picture?

Kidney

75

What is one function of the kidney?

makes urine

76
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What is the organ numbered 13 in this picture

Ureter

77

What is a function of the ureter?

takes urine from the kidney to the bladder

78
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What is the large blue tube in this picture?

Inferior Vena Cava

79

What is the function of the Inferior Vena Cava?

Carries deoxygenated blood from lower half of the body to the heart

80
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What is the large red tube in this picture?

Aorta

81

What is the function of the Aorta?

Largest artery in the body that carries oxygen rich blood from the heart to the organs of the body

82
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What is the organ labeled 14 in this picture?

Bladder

83

What is one function of the bladder?

holds urine

84
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What is the organ labeled 11 in this picture?

Rectum

85

What is one function of the rectum?

hold intestines shut until the need to pass the feces arise

86
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What is the organ labeled 9 on the back of the small intestines in this picture called?

pancreas

87

What is one function of the pancreas?

makes insulin

88
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What is the large grey organ labeled 10 in this picture called?

Large Intestine

89

What is one function of the Large intestine?

waste removal

90
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What are the two brown bean like organs labeled 12 in this picture called?

kidneys

91
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What are the two yellow like organs in this picture that sit on top of the kidneys called?

adrenal glands

92
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What is the green like organ labeled 6 in this picture called?

gallbladder

93

What is one function of the gallbladder?

stores bile

94
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What is the organ labeled 7 in this picture called?

Stomach

95

What is one function of the stomach?

breaks down proteins

96
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What is the organ labeled 3 in this picture called?

Diaphragm

97

What is one function of the diaphragm?

smooth muscle that separates thoracic cavity from abdominopelvic cavity from each other

98
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What is the organ labeled 5 in this picture called?

spleen

99

What is one function of the spleen?

filtering system

100
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What is the organ labeled 2 in this picture called?

heart

101

What is one function of the heart?

major pump in the body. It pumps oxygenated blood to the other organs in the body

102
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What is the organ labeled 1 in this picture?

Lung

103

What is one function of the lungs?

breathing in Oxygen exhaling Carbon dioxide

104
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What is the organ labeled 4 in this picture?

Liver

105

What is one function of the liver?

produces bile

106
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What is the organ labeled 15 in this picture?

Brain

107

What is one function of the brain?

the control center for all organs in the body

108

What is one function of the small intestine?

nutrients breakdown and absorption

109

Where are the spleen, stomach and pancreas located in the abdominal cavity?

left upper quadrant

110

Where are the liver and gallbladder located in the abdominal cavity?

Right upper quadrant

111

What type of equilibrium detects the position of the head and the body when they are not moving?

Static equilibrium

112

What type of equilibrium is concerned with the position of the head and body when it is moving?

Dynamic equilibrium

113

What are the receptors for this sense of dynamic equilibrium?

Semicircular canals

114

What is composed of hair like cells that pick up vibrations and pass them to the nerve endings of the vesticulocochlear nerves?

Organ of Corti

115

What is the function of the ear?

Hearing and detection of two types of equilibrium

116

What are the structures of the outer(external) ear?

Pinna, External auditory(meatus) canal, and the tympanic membrane

117

What has a flap of skin and elastic cartilage, that attaches to the head, laterally

Pinna

118

What is the function of the Pinna?

Collects and directs sound waves

119

What has a tunnel through the temporal bone?

External auditory(meatus)(canal)

120

What is the function of the external auditory canal?

Conducts sound waves

121

What part of the ear has a thin membrane of fibrous connective tissue?

Tympanic membrane(eardrum)

122

What is the function of the tympanic membrane(eardrum)?

Vibrates in response to sound waves striking it

123

What are the structures of the middle ear?

Tympanic cavity, Malleus, Incus, Stapes, Oval window, round window and Eustachian tube opening

124

What is the cavity in the middle ear called?

Tympanic cavity

125

What is the function of the tympanic cavity?

It is filled with air

126

What is the first of the three auditory ossicles called?

Malleus

127

What does the malleus do?

It attaches to the tympanic membrane at one end and conducts vibration from it to the incus

128

What is the second of the auditory ossicles called?

Incus

129

What does the Incus do?

It vibrates and transmits the vibrations to the stapes

130

What is the third auditory ossicle called?

Stapes

131

What does the Stapes do?

It carries vibrations to the oval window

132

What membrane covered opening in the bony wall between the middle is between the middle and the inner ear?

Oval Window

133

What does the oval window do?

It moves in and out responding to the vibrations of the stapes. This causes pressure waves in the fluid of the cochlea

134

What membrane covered opening is located below the oval window?

Round window

135

What does the round window do?

It bulges outward as the oval window bulges inward there-by releasing pressure

136

What is located on the anterior wall of the middle ear and leads into the Eustachian tube connecting the middle ear to the nasopharynx?

Eustachian tube opening

137

What does the Eustachian tube opening do?

It equalizes air pressure between the middle ear and outside

138

What are the structures of the Internal(inner) ear?

Osseous labyrinth, Cochlea, Semicircular canal, and vestibule

139

What is the hollow system of bony canal located in the petrous part of the temporal bone?

Osseous labyrinth

140

What is inside the Osseous labyrinth?

It has three major parts, each lined with fluid-filled canals, the membraneous labyrinth

141

What has a bony canal resembling a snail shell; membranous laybrinth, the cochlear duct, and contains the organ of the Corti?

Cochlea

142

What does the Organ of Corti do in the Cochlea?

membrane of the cochlea containing hair cells that transmit sound vibrations to the nerve fibers

143

What does the Cochlea do?

Generates the nerve impulses for hearing

144

What is located between the chochlea and the semicircular canals?

Vestibule

145

What does the Vestibule do?

It's membranous tubes, the utricle and the saccule, are responsible for static equilibrium

146

What cranial nerve division is the Vestibule part of?

VIII Vestibulocochlear

147

Where does the lacrimal gland terminate?

Nasal cavity

148

What are the extrinsic eye muscles called?

Superior rectus, Inferior rectus, Lateral rectus, Medial rectus, superior oblique, Inferior oblique

149

What do the rods and cones do in your eyes?

When they are stimulated they send impulses that travel by way of the optic nerve to the brain, where the impulses are interpreted as an image

150

What do the rods do?

provide dim vision

151

What do cones do?

Provide sharp vision and color

152

What does the lacrimal gland do?

Produces tears, which keep the eyes moist and dust free

153

Which eye muscle is located on the superior, central part of the eyeball and rotates the eyeball upward?

Superior Rectus

154

Which cranial nerve is responsible for rotating the eyeball upward?

IV Trochlear

155

Which eye muscle is located on the inferior, central part of the eyeball and rotates the eyeball downward?

Inferior Rectus

156

Which cranial nerve is responsible for rotating the eyeball downward?

VII Abducens

157

Which eye muscle is located on the medial side of the eyeball and rotates the eyeball medially?

Medial rectus

158

Which cranial nerve is responsible for rotating the eyeball laterally?

III Oculomotor

159

What eye muscle is located on the lateral side of the eyeball and rotates the eyeball laterally?

Lateral rectus

160

Which cranial nerve rotates the eyeball laterally?

III Oculomotor

161

What eye muscle is located between the superior and lateral reci; loops through a cartilaginous ring and rotates the eyeball downward laterally?

Superior Oblique

162

What cranial nerve rotates the eyeball downward laterally?

III Oculomotor

163

What eye muscle is located between the inferior and lateral recti; and rotates the eyeball upward laterally?

Inferior Oblique

164

What cranial nerve allows rotation of the eyeball upward laterally?

III Oculomotor

165

What are the structures of the external Anatomy of the Human Eye?

Sclera, Cornea, Conjunctiva, Optic nerve

166

What part of the eye has a white, thick outer covering made of tough dura mater?

Sclera

167

What does the Sclera do?

Protects and shapes the eye

168

What part of the eye is a transparent, anterior part of the sclera?

Cornea

169

What does the Cornea do?

Allows light to reach the retina; and some light refraction(bending)

170

What part of the eye has a thin mucous membrane covering anterior surface of the eye?

Conjunctiva

171

What does the Conjunctiva do?

Secretes mucus to lubricate the eyeball

172

What part of the eye is located posteriorly and medially and is part of the external anatomy of the eye?

Optic nerve

173

What does the Optic nerve do?

Takes sensory impulses to the brain

174

What are the internal Cavities of the Eye?

Anterior cavity, Posterior cavity

175

Which cavity in the eye has two chambers and is the space anterior to the lens?

Anterior cavity

176

What does the Anterior Cavity do in the eye?

Contains aqueous humor; which nurish the lens and cornea; Also helps with the shape

177

Where is the anterior chamber in the anterior cavity?

Space from the cornea to iris

178

Where is the posterior chamber in the anterior cavity?

Space from the iris to the lens

179

Which cavity in the eye is the space between the lens and retina?

Posterior cavity

180

What does the Posterior cavity do?

Contains the vitreous humor; presses retina against choroid; also helps shape the eyeball

181

What does the Aqueous humor look like?

Thin, clear, watery fluid

182

What does the Vitreous humor look like?

Thick, jelly like fluid

183

What are the Structures in the Internal anatomy of the eye?

Iris, Pupil, Choroid, Ciliary body, Suspensory Ligament, Lens, Retina, Optic disc

184

Which structure in the eye is the single point of attachment of retina to optic nerve?

Optic disc *blind spot*

185

What is the function of the optic disc

No photoreceptors here

186

What structure is the innermost layer of the eye in the posterior cavity; and contains the rod and cones?

Retina

187

What is he function of the Retina?

Initiates and conducts nerve impulses

188

What structure is a spherical, clear structure?

Lens

189

What is the function of the lens?

Main light refracting structure

190

What structure connects to the ciliary body?

Suspensory ligament

191

What is the function of the Suspensory ligament?

Suspends the lens

192

What structure in the eye is part of the choroid in area where cornea and sclera meet, seen as radiating folds behind the iris mostly smooth muscle?

Ciliary body

193

What is the function of the Ciliary body?

Suspensory ligament attach here; changes shape of lens; secretes aqueous humor

194

What structure in the eye is the middle layer of the eye, posterior part is pigmented and very vascular?

Choroid

195

What is the function of Choroid?

Provides blood supply; absorbs reflected light

196

What structure has ciruclar muscles and radial muscles and is the hole in the center of the Iris?

Pupil

197

What is the function of the Pupil?

Allows light into the eye by constriction and dialation

198

What structure of the eye is the colored part of the eye; sheets of smooth muscles arranged circularly and radially?

Iris

199

What is the function of the Iris?

Regulates amount of eye light entering the eye

200
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What is the clear disc in this picture?

Lens

201
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What is the brown folds in this picture

Ciliary body

202
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What is the clear outer covering in this picture?

Outer part is the Sclera and the inner side of this is the Cornea

203
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What is the thick jelly substance in this eye?

Vitreous Humor

204
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What is the delicate white coating mixed in with the vitreous humor?

Retina

205
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What is the silvery-blue pigmented substance on the back of the eye?

Tapetum Lucidum

206

Where in the human eye would you find the Tapetum Lucidum?

No where it is not found in humans

207
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What is 4 labeled in this picture?

Frontal bone

208
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What is 2 labeled in this picture?

Maxilla bone

209
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What is 3 labeled in this picture?

Nasal bone

210
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What is 1 labeled in this picture?

Zygomatic bone

211
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What is 8 labeled in this picture?

Extrinsic eye muscle

212
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What is 10 labeled in this picture?

Sclera

213
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What is 11 labeled in this picture?

Cornea

214
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What is 12 labeled in this picture?

Iris

215
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What is 13 labeled in this picture?

Pupil

216
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What is 6 labeled in this picture?

Lacrimal gland

217
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What is 5 labeled in this picture?

Lacrimal bone

218
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What is 15 labeled in this picture?

Ciliary body

219
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What is 16 labeled in this picture?

Choroid

220
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What is 1 labeled in this picture?

Pinna

221
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What is Big A labeled in this picture?

External Auditory Meatus(canal)

222
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What is Big B labeled in this picture?

Middle ear cavity

223
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What is C labeled in this picture?

Inner ear

224
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What is 14 labeled in this picture?

Oval window

225
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What is 3 labeled in this picture?

Tympanic membrane

226
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What is 7 labeled in this picture?

Eustachian Tube

227
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What is a labeled in this picture?

Malleus

228
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What is b labeled in this picture?

Incus

229
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What is c labeled in this picture?

Stapes

230
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What is 13 in this picture?

Oval window

231
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What is 14 in this picture?

Round window

232
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What is 18 in this picture?

Cochlea

233
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What is 19 in this picture?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

234
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What is 12 in this picture?

Vestibule

235
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What are the three ringed canals labeled 15-17 in this picture?

Semicircular canal

236
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Which Ossicle bone is in this picture?

Incus

237
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Which ossicle bone is in this picture?

Malleous

238
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Which ossicle bone is in this picture?

Stapes

239
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What is to the left of the pointer in this picture?

Hyaline cartilage

240
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What is to the right of the pointer in this picture?

Developing spongy bone

241
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What are the green arrows pointing to in this picture?

Epiphesial plate

242
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What is at the end of this pointer?

Central canal(Haversian canal)

243
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What is this a picture of?

Bone tissue

244
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What kind of canal runs vertical?

Central canal(Haversian)

245
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What kind of canal runs horizontal?

Perforating canal(Volkmann's)

246

What is found in the lacuna?

Osteocytes

247
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What is the red in the wholes on this picture?

Osteocytes

248

What are the osteocytes sitting in?

Lacuna's

249

What is composed of bone tissue, connective tissue, and has channels through which course blood vessels,lymphatics and nerves?

Bone

250

What are the small canals, that radiate from the lacuna and contain processes from the osteocytes?

Canaliculi

251

The bony matrix laid down in concentric rings is called what?

Lamellae

252

What kind of bone has many features of compact bone but is not organized in the orderly arrangement of osteons?

Spongey bone

253

What kind of bone marrow is in the middle of the Diaphysis?

Yellow bone marrow

254

What kind of bone marrow is in the middle of the epiphysis?

Red bone marrow

255
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What is the blue bone in this picture?

Frontal

256
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What is the green bone in this picture?

Parietal

257
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What suture separates the blue and green bone in this picture?

Coronal

258
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What suture separates the two green bones in this picture?

Sagittal

259
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What is the purple bone in this picture?

Occipital

260
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What suture separates the green bone from the purple bone in this picture?

Lambdoidal

261
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What suture separates the green bone from the pink bone in this picture?

Squamosal

262
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What is the pink bone in this picture?

Temporal

263
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What is the orange bone in this picture?

Zygomatic

264
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What is the yellow bone in this picture?

Sphenoid

265
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What is the light blue bone in this picture?

Maxilla

266
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What is the white bone in this picture?

Mandible

267
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What is at the end of the pointer in this picture?

Arrector pillae

268
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What is at the end of the pointer in this picture?

Sebaceous gland

269
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What is at the end of the pointer in this picture?

Papillae bulb root