Microbiology Unit 4

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by kategre18
604 views
updated 7 years ago by kategre18
Grade levels:
College: First year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Domain

cell type

2

kingdom

most general characteristics

3

species

most specific or unique characteristics

4

mycology

the scientific study of fungi

5

Characteristics of fungi

eukaryotic
nonphotosynthetic
unicellular or multicellular
asexual or sexual reproduction
not organized into tissues or organs
most are saprophytes
chitin cell wall

6

What are fungi?

yeast, molds, mushrooms, puffballs, bracket, chytrid molds

7

yeast

single-celled micrscopic fungi
used to manufacture drugs and fermented products such as alcohol

8

Fungi phylum suffix

-mycota

9

Fungi class suffix

-mycetes

10

Examples of fungi

zygomycota
zygomycetes
deuteromycota

11

Zygomycetes

causes zygomycosis
is an opportunistic infection caused by species of molds like rhizopus

12

Zygomycosis

fungal infection of the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or cutaneous system
patients are normally immune-compromised to begin with

13

Deuteromycota

fungi imperfecti (most sexual phases have not been discovered)
contains most of the medically important fungi in this phylum
asexual vegetative fungal spore (susceptible to drying and chemicals)

14

Coccidioides immitis

dimorphic - depending on the temp. it can be found as a mold on the skin or a spherule inside the body
endemic in California (Valley Fever - 400 cases a year)
causes pneumonia (inside body) & disseminated cutaneous mycosis (on skin)

15

dermatophytes

skin loving fungi

16

mycosis

fungal infection

17

dermatophytes cause...

cutaneous mycoses

18

cutaneous mycoses

fungal skin infection

19

tinea =

cutaneous mycosis
(medical term! not scientific name)

20

tinea pedum

athletes foot

21

tinea manus/ manumm (UMLS)

there is a lesion on the hand

22

Diagnosing & treating tinea manus

take a skin scraping to look for fungal element & add 40% KOH to break down the keratin and reveal fungal elements

23

tinea cruris

jock itch

24

tinea barbae

barber's itch, beard fungal infection

25

tinea corporis

ringworm of the body
starts as a red spot but has an emerging margin because the mold grows in the center and the hyphae extend out triggering an inflammation response

26

tinea capitis

ringworm of the scalp

27

main dermatophytes

trichophyton
microsporum
epidermophyton

28

wood's lamp

used to find molds in the skin and hair
is a diagnostic UV light
the hyphae growing seem to "glow" in the dark

29

toxin

biological poison

30

Aspergillus fumigatus

produces aflatoxin, grows on peanuts or corn, & produces potent carcinogens

31

carcinogens

cancer causing agents

32

yeast

reproduce by budding
usually in a tiny % of normal flora

33

Candida albicans

causes oral mycoses (aka thrush) & primary cause of vaginitis due to fungi

34

Chalamydomonas nivalis

a green algae that looks red ("watermelon snow")
psychrophillic - extreme cold loving
photoflagellate
has a secondary red carotenoid pigment (astaxanthin) in addition to chlorophyll (green)
microscopic

35

photoflagellate

uses sunlight for energy & moves using a flagella

36

Algae is classified by...

shape, size & color

37

Astaxanthin

secondary red carotenoid pigment for chlamydomonas nivalis

38

Dinoflagellates

Gonyaulax tamarensis & pfiesteria piscicida
single celled organisms that live in silica and calcium based material

39

Phycoerythrins

red photosynthetic pigments

40

Dinoflagellates

live in marine habitats
cause of red tide
marine neurotoxin

41

Marine neurotoxin

will affect any filter feeders
will concentrate in the flesh of the clams or oysters
testing shellfish for red tide

42

Perforated plates of a dinoflagellate

causes parasitic lesions in the fish

43

Rhodophyta

plant-like macroscopic appearance
red algae
usually marine habitats
phycoerythrins used as a photosynthetic pigments

44

Chondrus crispus

commercially used red algae
used as a source of carregeenin
used in dairy products and agar used in bacteriology

45

Pterocladia lucida

a source of agar in new zealand

46

Mechanisms to get DNA to RNA to Protein

replication
transcription
translation

47

Each mechanism has

initiation
elongation
& termination

48

where do we find genes?

in chromosomes

49

Prokaryotic DNA

one chromosome in a circle
extrachromosomal DNA is in a plasmid

50

Eukaryotic DNA

a linear chromosome
extrachromosomal DNA in mitochondria and ribosomes

51

Replication

DNA dependent DNA synthesis

52

Transcription

DNA dependent RNA synthesis

53

what makes up the overall structure of nitrogen bases?

nitrogen

54

Pruines

A & G (stop sign and a house)

55

Pyrimidines

T & C (stop sign)

56

Purines and Pyrimidines form

hydrogen bonds

57

Base pairs that form 2 hydrogen bonds

A & T

58

Base pairs that form 3 hydrogen bonds (harder to pull apart)

G & C

59

Nitrogen Bases in RNA

A, G, C, & U
substitute uracil for thymine

60

Deoxyribose

can add three phosphate groups
has no oxygen on sugar

61

Phosphodiester bond

goes from 3' to 5'
makes the sugar phosphate backbone and gives strength to the DNA
linkage between sugars & phosphate

62

3'

the hydroxyl group

63

5'

phosphate groups

64

DNA is

semiconservative
has an antiparallel construction

65

Semiconservative

ladder is pulled apart & new nucleotides come in

66

Experiment of the possible models of replication was performed by:
"the most beautiful experiment in biology"

Matthew Meselson & Franklin Stahl in 1958

67

Antiparallel construction

1/2 is 3' to 5' & other 1/2 is 5' to 3'

68

Topoisomerase

enzymes responsible for supercoiling

69

Helicase

enzyme responsible for flattening out the helix

70

DNA Polymerase III

enzyme responsible for replication

71

Continuous synthesis

located on the leading strand; one direction & a nice long strand

72

Discontinuous synthesis

located on the lagging strand

73

Primase

responsible for adding an RNA primer (aids DNA polymerase III)

74

DNA Polymerase I

repairs DNA; alot in cell. looks for errors takes out RNA & replaces with DNA
establishes the replication fork

75

DNA ligase

responsible for forming phosphodiester bonds

76

Initiation

origin of replication

77

Okazaki fragment

before replicator there are fragments called

78

transcription

making an RNA message from DNA

79

translation

making proteins from the message

80

Prokaryotic cells

replication, transcription, & translation occur in cytoplasm

81

transcription stages

initiation, elongation, & termination

82

Transcription initiation

RNA polymerase finds "recognition sites" on DNA

83

RNA polymerase

makes the RNA polymere

84

Transcription elongation

RNA polymerase polmerizes RNA copies

85

Transcription termination

A "stop site" is recognized

86

Products of transcription

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, & catalytic RNA

87

mRNA

working blue print

88

rRNA

building block used in protein synthesis factories (ribosomes)

89

tRNA

transports RNA brings monomers for protein synthesis from cytoplasm to ribosome

90

Products in transcription are used in...

translation

91

Genetic code is...

universal (almost)
punctuation
degeneracy
wobble

92

Punctuation

there is a start and stop

93

degeneracy

multiple codons for the same amino acids

94

wobble

for a group of codons some errors can occur & not mess up the protein

95

Translation

aka protein synthesis

96

tRNA

transfers amino acids to ribosome

97

Amino acids attach to tRNA

at 3'

98

Anticodon

triplet of complementary nucleotides; form hydrogen bonds & match up with 3 other codons

99

AUG

start

100

UAA

stop

101

UAG

stop

102

UGA

stop

103

codon

located on messenger RNA
lines up with anticodon

104

AUG in Eukaryotes

Met.

105

AUG in Prokaryotes

FMet.

106

Initiation

initiation complex

107

Elongation

tRNAs bring amino acid building blocks to the mRNA/ribosome site where peptide bonds are formed

108

Termination

stop site is recognized

109

Missense mutation

produces a full protein with one nucleic acid changing the entire amino acid

110

Aminoacyl-tRNA syntheases

the enzyme responsible for adding AA to tRNAs

111

Point mutation

change in one nucleotide - an A instead of a C

112

Frameshift mutation

insertion or deletion of nucleotides ; shifts the entire reading frame

113

Missense point mutation

change in one nucleotide & will have full length proteins but will have different proteins & a different function

114

Nonsense point mutation

changing in one nucleotide on DNA or RNA that results in placing a premature stop codon producing an incomplete protein

115

mutation

change in the genes

116

phenotype

biochemical make-up & produces physical characteristics

117

silent point mutation

change in one nucleotide that results in a change in a codon that is for the same amino acid as in the original message so the same protein is made

118

Ionizing radiation

x-rays & gamma rays

119

Non-ionizing rays

ultraviolet light

120

Lateral gene transfer

exchange of genetic material & creates diversity

121

transformation

naked DNA is transferred through the environment and taken up by the recipient cell & then incorporated
uptake of "naked" DNA

122

transduction

through a bacterial virus genetic material is transferred ; a mid range of DNA transferred
transfer by temperate bacteriophage

123

conjugation

largest amount of DNA is transferred; chromosomal & plasmids are transferred; donor & recipient cells are connected by a bridge (pili)

124

Frederick Griffiths

1928
DNA transferred by transformation

125

Plasmids

way of delivering the pay load (DNA)

126

Integrated plasmid

high frequency recombinant F' cells

127

Ti plasmid

can be used to transfer genetic material in plants

128

Recombinant DNA

double stranded DNA from 2 different sources that get spliced together

129

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

contains Ti plasmid

130

Resistant plasmids transfer _______ through conjugation

antibiotic resistance

131

Transfection

introducing new genetic material (nucleic acid) of a virus into a mammalian cell

132

Chargaff's rule

looking at how much (percentage) of nucleotides in an organisms cell

133

Genetically engineered prokaryotes & eukaryotes

insulin production
hemoglobin
growth hormone
interferon
albumin
oil degraders
alcohol producers
pesticide control
vaccines
frost resistance

134

DNA hybridization

heat to denature & 2 complementary sides are reanneal regardless of the source
2 pieces of single stranded DNA from 2 different organisms combine to make a new DNA

135

cDNA

complementary DNA (copies) of DNA from plasmids to carry or transfer DNA

136

Sticky ends

form a staggered cut & want to stick back to (reanneal) single stranded DNA tail

137

Restriction endonucleases

facilitate cleavage of phospodiester bond; will do it on both sides of the DNA; but is looking for a specific sequence

138

DNA probe

a tiny piece of single stranded DNA that has the same complementary nucleotides as what is being looked for & it is tagged

small ssDNA with tagged reporter gene

139

DNA probes are used to...

find a unique gene

140

How to form a DNA probe

streak DNA to form colones => transfer colonies to a plastic membrane => soak membrane in an alkaline solution => you then have lysed cells with naked DNA => probe is then added => membrane is washed & tag is looked for

141

"tag" are..

radioisotopes
chemiluminescent or
colorimetric

142

radioisotope

long half lives & have dangerous disposal & dangers for workers using it

143

chemiluminescent

glows in the dark

144

colorimetric

look for a color change

145

Blue colonies

normal intact functional lac z' protein

146

white colonies

have recombinant DNA & nonfunctional lac z' proteins

147

DNA electrophoresis

technique that separates biological material by masses & sizes onto a gel

148

Practical uses for DNA electrophoresis

forensics
crime solving
hair
skin
semen
saliva

149

agarose

pure agar

150

Gel electrophoresis

very fragil
electric field separate DNA fragments by size in an agars gel matrix

151

Southern blot method

DNA transfer from gel to nylon or nitrocellulose pieces of membrane

152

RFLP

Restriction fragment length polymorphism
"restriction nucleases used and many shapes produced"

153

Dr. Southern

first lab to come out with a gel electrophoresis method

154

Benefits in addition to forensic application of RFLP analysis

medicine
sickle cell anemia
cystic fibrosis
paternity issues

155

Northern blot

separates RNA in an electrical field by gel electrophoresis in agarose, stained with ethydium bromide & then onto a membrane & stains it

156

Western blot

proteins transfer, poly acrylamide separation (PAGE) of proteins separated in an electrical field by gel electrophoresis in agarose, stained with ethydium bromide, & then are separated onto a membrane

157

Use of western blot

diagnose lyme disease & HIV

158

Southern western blot

Finds DNA binding proteins (DNBP)
technique used to isolate fragments of DNA containing genes or segments of genes. DNA fragments are seperated by an electrical field by gel electrophoresis in agarose. stained with ethydium bromide fragments are then transferred from the gel to nitrocellulose or nylon

159

DNA polymerase

example of DNA binding protein

160

PCR

multiple copies of the same small sample of DNA are produced
the procedure by which billions of copies of a sequence of DNA can be made in a few hours

161

Microarrays

a molecular microscope slide with 100's of samples form DNA & they use the DNA probe to find where diseases originate & look for distinct differences from person to person

162

Customized medicine

medicine made for an individual

163

PCR needs:

RNA primer
Nucleotides
TAQ DNA polymerase

164

Thermus aquaticus

all enzymes are heat tolerant so often used in PCR

165

Targeting Cytochrome P450

genotypes (phenotypes) of over 99% of the world's population
& is around 3.5 billion years old

166

biotechnology

using an organism to produce a commercial or industrial product

167

Products of ancient biotechnology

beer & bread

168

genetic engineering

artificially manipulating the genetic make-up of an organism

169

in vivo

in an organism

170

in vitro

in the labratory

171

recombinant DNA (rDNA)

double stranded DNA made from 2 different sources or species

172

Gene library

term used to describe a collection of different DNA fragments

173

colonies

identical copies of organisms or cells

174

bioreclamation

use of genetically engineered organisms to reclaim garbage or oil spills

175

DNA denaturing

heating DNA to separate double stranded DNA into single stranded DNA ;
phosphodiester are not broken

176

DNA probes

short segments of single stranded DNA which have been labeled that recognizes or binds to the DNA sequence of a gene from another source

177

Reporter gene

gene that has been tagged with a radioisotope usually by a DNA probe

178

DNA hybridization

complementary binding of two sources of ssDNA to form one piece of double stranded DNA - complete, incomplete, or partial

179

Restriction endonucleases

enzyme used to nick dsDNA and make sticky ends

180

complementary DNA (cDNA)

copies of DNA made from the mRNA derived from the specific cells producing the desired gene product needed - rHGH, rInsulin

181

reverse transcrpitase

A VERY IMPORTANT enzyme used to produce cDNA from mRNA

182

transgenic animals

animals which have been genetically engineered in vitro to have specific genes from a different species

183

plasmids

one of the most common vectors used in genetic engineering

184

Ti plasmid

the most elegant way of introducing recombinant DNA into a plant cell

185

viruses

vectors that are more commonly used in human gene therapy

186

RFLP

the DNA fingerprint. DNA is cut with restriction endonucleases producing different sized fragments. the different sized fragments are separated by electrophoresis generally DNA from some people will produce different mixtures of fragments. used in criminal investigations & paternity testing

187

water pollution can occur in 3 ways...

physically (stuff in it)
chemically
biologically (massive growth of algae)

188

Polluted water supports...

a greater than normal microbial load

189

Waterborne illnesses

viruses are the most common cause
diarrheal diseases occur world wide

190

water borne diseases are ________ in the US

rare

191

Water treatment removes most

waterborne pathogens

192

Potable water

water that is considered safe enough to drink but is not completely sterile but it is expected to have no pathogens and levels must be low enough to not be considered a health concern

193

Coliform bacteria

gram-negative rods that are lactose users & are found coming from mammalian digestive tracts

194

Coliform bacteria example

E. coli

195

E. Coli may indicate that other pathogens may be present as well such as ...

salmonella & shingella
these are gram-negative bacteria but are lactose negative

196

Presence of coliforms in water indicates...

fecal contamination & an increased likelihood that disease-causing agents are present

197

Water treatment stages:

1. sediment
2. flocculation
3. filtration
4. disinfection

198

sediment stage

take out solids

199

flocculation

add an agent to make the little particles settle

200

filtration

uses sand, activated charcoal, or membrane to filter water

201

disinfection

chlorine gas, ozone, or UV light are used to clean the water