This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells where it is synthesized.
A anti-diuretic hormone
D angiotensin II
E atrial natriuretic peptide
If ATP production in a human kidney was suddenly halted, urine production would
A increase, and the urine would be isoosmotic compared to plasma.
B decrease, and the urine would be isoosmotic compared to plasma.
C increase, and the urine would be hyperosmotic compared to plasma.
D decrease, and the urine would be hypoosmotic compared to plasma.
E come to a complete halt.
Where and when does osmolarity of the filtrate increase?
A As the filtrate moves through the proximal tubule
B As the filtrate moves up to the cortex in the ascending limb of the loop
C As the filtrate moves down the descending limb of the loop of Henle
The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by all of the following except
A active transport of salt from the upper region of the ascending limb.
B diffusion of salt from the thin segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
C diffusion of urea from the collecting duct.
D the spatial arrangement of juxtamedullary nephrons.
E diffusion of salt from the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
Aldosterone is _____.
A a protein hormone that decreases blood pressure without changing blood volume
B decreases water reabsorption in the kidneys
C is released in great quantities when ethanol intoxication takes place
D a steroid hormone that reduces the amount of fluid excreted in the urine E triggers the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin II
Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.
A urine containing more glucose
B bloody urine
C urine containing a lower concentration of urea
D more concentrated urine
E Less concentrated urine
The filtrate in the renal pelvis enters directly from
A the collecting duct.
B the loop of Henle.
C Bowman's capsule.
D the glomerulus.
E the proximal tubul
Which regions of the nephron function independently of hormonal control for the most part?
A Renal corpuscle and collecting duct.
B Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.
C Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle.
D Distal tubule and collecting duct.
What is the difference between a countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, and the countercurrent systems that maximize oxygen absorption by fish gills or reduce heat loss in endotherms?
A A countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, involves movement of ions rather than movement of oxygen or heat transfer.
B Unlike the other countercurrent systems, a countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, expends energy in active transport.
C A countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, includes a capillary bed.
Which of the following events occurs at the onset of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?
A Development of the corpus luteum.
B Shedding of the endometrium.
C Release of high levels of FSH.
D Maturation of the follicle.
Which hormone spikes midway through the menstrual cycle and triggers ovulation?
B Luteinizing hormone (LH).
C Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
After ovulation, high levels of _____ inhibit _____ secretion.
A estrogen and progesterone ... FSH and LH
B FSH and LH ... estrogen and progesterone
C HCG ... estrogen and progesterone
D estrogen ... FSH
E androgens ... FSH and LH
Prior to ovulation, the primary steroid hormone secreted by the growing follicle is