Anatomy Block III- Elbow, Knee, Wrist, and Ankle Joints Flashcards


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1

what type of joint is the elbow joint

hinge joint

2
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a. radial collateral ligament

b. anular ligament of radius

3
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ulnar collateral ligament

4
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a. radial nerve
b. deep branch of radial nerve
c. superficial branch of radial nerve
d. ulnar nerve
e. median nerve

5

what three joints make up the elbow joint

humeroulnar joint
humeroradial joint
radioulnar joint

6

is there high or low stability between the humerus and ulna

high

7

what is the close pack positin of the hmeroulnar joint

full extension

8

what is the olecranon process

a posterior, C shaped process tht wraps around the trochlea of the humerus (medial condyle)

9
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a. olecranon fossa
b. lateral epicondyle
c. capitulum
d. radius
e. ulna
f. trochlea
g. medial epicondyle

10

where is the olecranon fossa

between the olecranon process and the humerus

11

what prevents hyperextension of the elbow

locking of the elbow and olecranon process itself

12

what ligaments are important to the elbow joint

proximal radial collateral ligament

proximal ulnar collateral ligament

13

what does the proximal radial collateral ligament prevent

side to side motions and forearm adduction

14
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anular ligament

15

what shape is the proximal ulnar collateral ligametn

diamond shaped

16

what side is the ulnar collateral ligament on

medial side

17

what is the carrying angle

when sitting in anatomical position, forearms lok slightly abducted, this is the carrying angle

18

what is the purpose of the carrying angle

makes sure hands clear hips wile walking

19

where is the subcutaneous olecranon bursa

outside of olecranon

20

what does the subcutaneous olecranon bursa do

helps provide a more friction-free surface, a subcutaneous structure that helps things slide smoothly by each other

21

what is bursitis

inflammation of bursa

22

how is bursitis treated

ice, compression, may need to be aspirated several times

NSAIDs

corticosteroids if bad enough

23

which nerves contribute to the elbow joint

musculocutaneous
radial
median
ulnar

24

what spinal cord segments contribute to flexion of the elbow

C5, C6

25

what spinal cord segments contribute to extension of the elbox

C6, C7

26

what spinal cord segments contribute to supination

C6

27

what spinal cord segments contribture to pronation

C7-C8

28

how is the elbow usually dislocated (directino)

posteriorly

29

how much force is needed to dislocate the elbow and what bone needs to be pushed usually

much force pushing ulna

30

what is usually the position of elbow dislocation

humerus slides over the top of the coronoid process and sits in front of it

31

what can happen at the elbow joint with improper reduction

fracture of the ulna

32

what nerve is involved in an elbow dislocation usually

ulnar nerve

33

how does one get tendonitis

overuse

34

what type of muscles does medial epicondylitis involve

forearm flexors

35

what is medial epicondylitis known as

golfer's or thrower's elbow

36

what is usually the overused muscle in medial epicondylitis

superficial group of forearm flexors like the common flexor tendon's attachments

37

what is the treatment of epicondylitis if it gets bad enough

NSAIDs, corticosteroids

38

what usually is the overused muscle in lateral epicondylitis

superficial forearm and wrist extensors

39

what is lateral epicondylitis known as

tennis elbow

40

what types of movements usually cause lateral epicondylitis

backhand movements

41

what types of muscles usully pull on the lateral epicondyle to make it irritated

extensors

42

what is the general movement to generate medial epicondylitis

moveemnts with large amounts of flexion and force generated

43

what stabilizes the radial head in the radio-ulnar joint

anular ligament

44

what shares fibers with the radial collateral ligametn

anular ligament

45

what ligament helps hold the radius in place

anular ligament

46

what is the ligament of the proximal part of the radioulnar joint

anular ligament

47

what does the radioulnar joint allow

pronation and supination

48

how does the radioulnar joint allow pronation and supination

due to round radial head that fits into radial notch of ulnar where it can rotate and pivot

49

what part of the radioulnar joint provides most of the motion

proximal joint

50

what innervates the proximal radioulnar joint

musculocutaneous
median
radial

51

what innervates the distal radioulnar joint

anterior and posterior interosseus nerves

52

what types of injuries can occur to the radioulnar joint

dislocation (Nanny's elbow)

53

why are children more prone to Nanny;s elbow

because radial head isn't fully developed or anular ligament isnt fully developed and isnt at max strength yet so a forceful, sharp yanking tends to pull the radius out of the anular ligamtn

54

how does the Nanny's elbow tend to happen directionally

dislocated inferiorly or distally then slides out to lateral side

55

what will Nanny's elbow look like

lateral forearm protrusion

56

what is the close pack of the knee joint

fully extended

57

what is the loose pack of the knee joint

flexed

58

what are the joints associated with the knee

femortibial joint
femoropatellar joint

59

does the femorotibial joint have more or less mobility and stability than elbow

more mobility, less stability

60

what provides most of knee stability

muscles

61

why does the knee have lateral flexibility

to run

62

are there any amounts of rotation/abduction/adduction with the knee

yes

63

where is the articulation of the femorotibial joint

femur and tibia, NO ARTICULATION WITH FIBULA

64

to what does the femorotibial joint owe its stability

multiple muscles

65

what are the primary ligaments of the femorotibial joint

anterior cruciate ligament
posterior cruciate ligament
tibial collateral ligament
fibular collateral ligament

66
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a. fibular collateral ligament
b. lateral meniscus
c. tibial collateral ligament
d. medial meniscus
e. anterior cruciate ligament
f. posterior cruciate ligament

67
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a. posteiror cruciate ligament
b. tibial collateral ligament
c. fibular collateral ligament
d. anterior cruciate ligament

68

where does the ACL attach to the knee

anterior side of tibia

69

what does the ACL prevent

anterior sliding of knee

70

besides anterior sliding of the knee what does the ACL check and why

hyperextension because tehre is no bony lock like in elbow

71

where does the PCL attach

posterior side of tibia

72

what does the PCL prevent

prevents tibia from sliding posteriorly

73

where is the tibial collateral ligament

medial ligament

74

what does the tibial collateral ligament prevent

prevents leg from adducting

75

where is the fibular collateral ligament

lateral ligaemtn

76

what does the fibular collateral ligament prevent

abduction of leg

77
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a. medial meniscus
b. lateral meniscus

78

what type of cartilaginous supports are there for the femorotibial joint

medial meniscus and lateral meniscus

79

what are the cartilaginous supports of the femorotibial ligaments made out of

fibrocartilage

80

what is the role of the cartilaginous supports of the femorotibial ligament

incraeses articular surface and absorbs forces

81

how do the cartilaginous supports of the femorotibial ligament increase articular surface and absorb forces

deepen articular surface between the two bones due to its thicker on the outside, thinner on the inside shape that has C shaped cups that keep the femur in place

82

are the menisces vascularized well

no, outside gets a decent blood supply but no blood to inner layers

83

how do inner layers of the meniscuses get nutrients

synovial fluid

84

why when sitting in a movie theater and you stand up do your knees feel sore

menisci get stiff because the synovial fluid has not been pumping in and out of the knee joint

85

ultimately what is the job of the menisci

act as major shock absorbers

86

what nerves pass through the femorotibial joint

femoral
tibial
common fibular
obturator
saphenous

87

are knee dislocations common or rare

rare

88

what is needed for a femorotibial dislocation

very large force

89

what must be checked if a femorotibial dislocation is suspected

distal pulses for vascular damage

90

are ACL tears contact tears only

no, often noncontact

91

are ACL tears more commmon in men or women

women

92

when do ACL tears happen

rotation/twisting movement with femur and tibia going opposite ways, leads to ACL disruption

93

why are women more apt to ACL tears

lower centers of gravity, so knee angle is pushed in (bowing) which stresses ACL

94

what affects ligament strength in general

menstrual cycle and levels of hormones

95

why is the feeling of instability common in ACL injury

quads pull leg forward to walk, can feel like you are sliding forward

96

are PCL tears common

no

97

what is generally needed for PCL tear

large force

98

in what sport would PCL tears be common

roller derby

99

can knee be used without a PCL? why?

yes because knee normally doesnt want to move posteriorly anyway, qudas act as a check against the posterrior movement and are typically stronger than hamstrings so the injury is usually compensated for

100

what type of force injures a TCL

lateral force pushes knee inward, where we are most vulnerable for injury of TCL

101

is FCL injury more or less common than TCL

not as common

102

what do FCLs usually get injured from

extended position, forced adduction of leg

103

how are collateral ligaments tested

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varus (lateral force pushing outward, tests FCL) or valgus (medial force pushing inward, tests TCL) techniques are assessed

104

how are cruciate ligametns tested

drawer test; Lachman test for ACL; hamstring contraction can give a false reading though in drawer test, so be careful

105

which meniscal tear is more commmon

medial

106

do meniscal tears usually heal on their own

no

107

unless the meniscal tear is on the outermost area, how are they repaired

arthroscopic repair by shaving down or suturing meniscaus because damaged meniscus will distupt the articular surface

108

what does someone with a meniscal tear have issues with besides the obvious

knee locking, feels like knee cant fully flex or extend because flaps of meniscus fold under and disrupt articular surface and cause the joint to lock and not continue through its range of motion

109

what can be done if meniscal damage has impacted the articular surface in a bad way

re-smooth out or remove meniscus

110

what is usually coming later in life with a removed meniscus

arthritis in those jionts

111

what is considered the unahppy triad

ACL, TCL, medial meniscus

112

why is the unhappy triad linked

they usually all get torn when one of them does

113

what type of injuries can tear the unhappy triad

contact or non contact injuries from twisting force like when you plant and turn

114

what motion tears ACL

twisting of knee

115

what motion tears TCL

forced abduction of knee

116

what tears meniscus

TCL and meniscus tear together because they share fibers

117

why doesnt FCL tear during unhappy triad tearing

does not share fibers

118

what ligament's tears are repaired quite frequently

ACL

119

how is ACL repair sometimes done

incision in front of patellar tendon and use taht as new ACL or tendon of hamstring?

120

how long is ACL recovery

4-6 or 12 months

121

what is the femoropatellar joint an articulation between

patella and femur

122

where does the patella articulate with the femur

backside of patella with smooth articular surface taht will glide on condyles of femur

123

what holds the femoropatellar joint down

tendons of quadriceps and CT

124

when does the CT around the femoropatellar joint become the patellar ligament

between patella and tibial tuberosity

125

what does teh CT around the femoropatellar joint do

helps hold patella in place and acts as a force transition from quadriceps to tibia

126
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a. quadriceps tendon
b. suprapatellar tendon
c. subcutaneous prepatellar bursa
d. patella
e. patellar ligament

127

where is the prepatellar bursa

on top of patella

128

where is the infrapatellar bursa

deep to patellar ligament

129

are injuries to the femoropatellar joint common

somewhat

130

which direction does femoropatellar dilsoation go almost always

laterally

131

what happens in femoropatellar dislocation

lateral condyle extends forward more with a medial force that drives the patella laterally so it can't get back over that lateral condyle

132

if dislocated once, is a femoropatellar joint likely to dislocate again

yes

133

what needs to be noted when reparing a femoropatellar dislocation

don't put the patella into the lateral condyle

134

what is a chondromalacia patella

wearing away of articular surface and as taht surface wears away it wears away articular surface of the condyles of the femur, which produces grinding (crepidice)

135

what can cause chondromalacia pataella

wearing away of articular surface

osteoarthritis

136

what can smooth out chondromalacia patella

knee replacements

137

what demographic is patellar tendinitis common in

young adults

138

where is patellar tendinitis

in patellar ligament area

139

how do you get patellar tendonitis

overuse

140

what is Osgood Schlatter's disease

muscles stronger than bones at pubety, so patellar ligament can pull on tibial tuberosity which causes an abnormal deformation of that tibial tuberosity

141

what can happen in extreme cases of Osgood Schlatter's disease

tendon pulls part of bone off

142

what is the use of the patella

provides mecahnical advantage of quadriceps

143

what is "jumper's knee"

patellar tendonitis

144
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articular disc of wrist

145

what movements can the wrist do

flex/ext
ab/adduction

146

what is close pack in the wrist

extension

147

what is the articulation between at the wrist

distal radius and three carpal bones (scaphoid, lunate, triquatrum)

148

what is the articulation of the ulna with the bones of the hand

more of an articular disc, most of the stability and mobility is due to the radius and its attachments

149

what allows the wrist to have added mobility

gliding joints of the carpal bones

150
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a. ulnar collateral ligament
b. radial collateral ligament

151

what type of ligamentous support does the wrist have

distal radial collateral ligament
distal ulnar collateral ligament

152

what does the distal radial collateral ligament prevent

adduction of hand

153

what does the distal ulnar collateral ligament prevent

abduction of the hand

154

are wrist sprains a big deal

no

155

what types of fractures are common in the hand

Colle's fracture

156

what is a colle's fracture known as

dinner fork deformity

157

what is a colles fracture

distal end of the radius fracture

158

how does one get a colle's fracture? what can also be broken in this way

from landing on an outstretched hand, can also break scaphoid bone from this in addition to the distal end of the radius

159

why is the dinner fork deformity called so

severe drop off of hand

160

what is the innervation of the wrist

median (anterior interosseus)
ulnar
radial (posterior interosseous)

161

what spinal cord levels deal with extensin of the wrist

C6, C7

162

what spinal cord levels deal with flexion of the wrist

C6, C7

163

what are the joints of the ankle

talocrural articulation and subtalar joint

164

what is the talocrural articulation

articulation between talus and tibia and fibula

165

what type of joint is the talocrural articulation

modified hinge joint

166

what does the talocrural articuatlino allow (movement)

PF/DF

167

what is the close pack of the talocrural articulation

DF

168

what is the subtalar joint

joint between talus and calcaneus

169

what type of moveemnt does the subtalar joint allow

inversion/eversion

170

what are inversion/eversion

inverision: supinatino of foot+PF
eversino: pronation of foot + DF

171

is inversino or eversino more limited

eversion

172

why is eversion so limitedq

lateral malleolus

173
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a. posterior talofibular ligament
b. calcaneofibular ligament
c. anterior talofibular ligament

174
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parts of medial ligament of ankle

175

what do the lateral ligaments of the ankle do

help resist inversin

176

what are the lateral ligaments of the ankle

anteiror talofibular
posteiror talofibular
calcaneofibular

177

what is the medial ligament of the ankle also called

deltoid ligament

178

what does the medial ligament of the ankle do

help resist eversion

179

is the medial ligament or are the lateral ligametns larger

medial is much larger

180

what innervates the ankle

tibial and deep fibular nerve

181

what types of injuries are common at the ankle

inversion sprain
syndesmotic sprain
fractures

182

are inversino or eversion sprains more common

inversion sprain

183

why are inversino sprains more common than eversion sprains

strength of medial ligament of ankle and also the bony barrier

184

what is an inversino sprain usually from

PF to inversion very quikcly

185

what are teh inversino sprains ranked by commonality

anterior talofibular
posterior talofibular
calcaneoufibular

186

what is a high ankle sprain

syndesmotic sprain

187

what ligaments does the syndesmotic sprain usually involve

more proximal ligaments like tibiofibular ligaments

188

what happens to the taus in the syndesmotic sprain

driven up between tibia and fibula

189
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a. tibial nerve
b. common fibular nerve

190

what is the syndesmotic sprain usually from

twist of foot and lateral blow to knee

191

what breaks usually in syndesmotic sprain

tibiofibular ligaments as talus wedges between them and possiblly ruptures interosseus membrane

192

are syndesmotic sprains painful

YES

193

how are syndesmotic sprains treated

walking boot to stop movement

194

what type of fractures happen at the ankle commonly

evulsion fracture, when ligament rips off piece of bone, can happen in eversion sprain

195

what spinal cord levels do inversion

L4, L5

196

what spinal cord levels do eversion

L5 S1

197

what spinal cord levels do DF

L4, L5

198

what spinal cord levels do PF

S1 S2