Vocabulary - The Reproductive System

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1

Reproductive System

Responsible for carrying on the human race, appears to “slumber” until puberty.

2

Gonads

the primary sex organs, the testes in males and the ovaries in females.

3

Gametes

sex cells produced by the gonads

4

Sex Hormones

hormones secreted by the gonads

5

Accessory Reproductive Organs

All reproductive structures other than the gonads—ducts, glands, and external genitalia

6

Testes

sperm producing, male gonads

7

scrotum

a sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis. It is covered with sparse hairs, and contains paired oval testes. A midline septum divides the scrotum, providing a compartment for each testis. Contain the entire ability to father offspring. Viable sperm cannot be produced in abundance at core body temperature (37°C), the superficial location of the scrotum, which provides a temperature about 3°C lower, is an essential adaptation.

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Dartos Muscle

layer of smooth muscle in the superficial fascia, wrinkles the scrotal skin.

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Cremaster Muscles

bands of skeletal muscle that arise from the internal oblique muscles of the trunk, elevate the testes

10

Tunica Vaginalis

The outer double layer covering of the testis, derived from an outpocketing of the peritoneum

11

Tunica Albuginea

the fibrous capsule of the testis.

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Seminiferous Tubules

tightly coiled sperm-carrying

13

Myoid Cells

“sperm factories.” Surrounding each seminiferous tubule are three to five layers of smooth muscle

14

straight tubule, or tubulus rectus

convergence of the seminiferous tubules of each lobule

15

Rete Testis

a tubular network on the posterior side of the testis.

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Interstitial Cells

also called Leydig cells, produce androgens (most importantly testosterone), which they secrete into the surrounding interstitial fluid.

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Testicular Arteries

which branch from the abdominal aorta superior to the pelvis, supply the testes.

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Pampiniform Venous Plexus

network in which the testicular veins arise

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Spermatic Cord

enclosure of nerve fibers, blood vessels and lymphatic system that passes through the inguinal canal

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Penis

(“tail”) is a copulatory organ, designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract

21

External Genitalia

The penis and scrotum, which hang suspended from the perineum, make up the external reproductive structures

22

Male Perineum

( “around the anus”) is the diamond-shaped region located between the pubic symphysis anteriorly, the coccyx posteriorly, and the ischial tuberosities laterally

23

Glans Penis

consists of an attached root and a free shaft or body that ends in an enlarged tip

24

Prepuce

foreskin, The skin covering the penis is loose, and it slides distally to form a cuff

25

Corpus Spongiosum

The midventral erectile body(“spongy body”) surrounds the urethra. It expands distally to form the glans and proximally to form the part of the root called the bulb of the penis

26

Corpora Cavernosa

The paired dorsal erectile bodies(“cavernous bodies”), make up most of the penis and are bound by the fibrous tunica albuginea.

27

Crura of the Penis

proximal ends of the corpora cavernosa

28

Epididymis

It is a single, narrow, tightly-coiled tube (in adult humans, six to seven meters in length) connecting the efferent ducts from the rear of each testicle to its vas deferens.

29

Ductus Deferens

( “carrying away”), or vas deferens, is about 45 cm (18 inches) long. It runs upward as part of the spermatic cord from the epididymis through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity

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Ampulla

The expanded terminus of the ductus deferens

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Ejaculatory Duct

enters the prostate, and there it empties into the urethra.

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Vasectomy

(“cutting the vas”). In this relatively minor operation, the physician makes a small incision into the scrotum and then cuts through and ligates (ties off) each ductus deferens. Sperm are still produced, but they can no longer reach the body exterior

33

Urethra

the terminal portion of the male duct system. It conveys both urine and semen (at different times), so it serves both the urinary and reproductive systems.

34

Prostatic Urethra

the portion surrounded by the prostate

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Membranous urethra

in the urogenital diaphragm

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Spongy (penile) urethra

which runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice

37

Accessory Glands

include the paired seminal vesicles and bulbourethral glands and the single prostate. Together these glands produce the bulk of semen (sperm plus accessory gland secretions).

38

prostate

is a single doughnut-shaped gland about the size of a peach pit. It encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder. Enclosed by a thick connective tissue capsule, it is made up of 20 to 30 compound tubuloalveolar glands embedded in a mass (stroma) of smooth muscle and dense connective tissue.

39

Bulbourethral Glands

are pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate (Figures 27.1 and 27.4). They produce a thick, clear mucus, some of which drains into the spongy urethra and lubricates the glans penis when a man becomes sexually excited.

40

Semen

is a milky white, somewhat sticky mixture of sperm, testicular fluid, and accessory gland secretions. The liquid provides a transport medium and nutrients and contains chemicals that protect and activate the sperm and facilitate their movement.

41

Erection

enlargement and stiffening of the penis, results from engorgement of the erectile bodies with blood

42

Ejaculation

(ejac = to shoot forth) is the propulsion of semen from the male duct system. Although erection is under parasympathetic control, ejaculation is under sympathetic control.

43

Orgasm

The entire ejaculatory event

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Resolution

following orgasm a period of muscular and psychological relaxation

45

Erectile dysfunction (ED)

the inability to attain an erection

46

Spermatogenesis

(“sperm formation”) is the sequence of events in the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produces male gametes

47

Diploid Chromosomal Number

The normal chromosome number in most body cells

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Haploid Chromosomal Number

The number of chromosomes in human gametes is 23

49

Meiosis

(“a lessening”), a unique kind of nuclear division that, for the most part, occurs only in the gonads

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Meiosis I

sometimes called the reduction division of meiosis because it reduces the chromosome number from 2n to n.

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Synapsis

the pairing of two homologous chromosomes that occurs during meiosis

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Crossovers

also called chiasmata (singular: chiasma), are formed within each tetrad as the free ends of one maternal and one paternal chromatid wrap around each other at one or more points.

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Tetrads

little groups of four chromatids

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Meiosis II

The second meiotic division, meiosis II, mirrors mitosis in every way, except that the chromosomes are not replicated before it begins. Instead, the sister chromatids in the two daughter cells of meiosis I are simply parceled out among four cells.

55

Spermatogenic Cells

(spermatogenic = sperm forming), give rise to sperm in the following series of divisions and cellular transformations

56

Type A Daughter Cell

remains at the basal lamina to maintain the germ cell line.

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Type B cell

gets pushed toward the lumen, where it becomes a primary spermatocyte destined to produce four sperm.

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Secondary Spermatocytes

two smaller haploid cells, Each primary spermatocyte generated during the first phase undergoes meiosis I, forming two smaller haploid cells

59

Spermatozoon

(“animal seed”), has a head, a midpiece, and a tail, which correspond roughly to genetic, metabolic, and locomotor regions

60

Acrosome

(“tip piece”) Sperm tip, The lysosome-like acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate and enter an egg.

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Sperm Midpiece

contains mitochondria spiraled tightly around the microtubules of the tail.

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Sertoli cells

which extend from the basal lamina to the lumen of the tubule.

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Basal Compartment

extends from the basal lamina to their tight junctions and it contains spermatogonia and the earliest primary spermatocytes

64

Adluminal Compartment

lies internal to the tight junctions and includes the meiotically active cells and the tubule lumen

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Blood Testis Barrier

This barrier prevents the membrane antigens of differentiating sperm from escaping through the basal lamina into the bloodstream where they would activate the immune system.

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Testicular Fluid

(rich in androgens and metabolic acids) that provides the transport medium for sperm in the lumen, and phagocytize faulty germ cells and the excess cytoplasm sloughed off as the spermatids transform into sperm

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gonadotropin

releasing hormone (GnRH) - which reaches the anterior pituitary cells via the blood of the hypophyseal portal system. GnRH controls the release of the two anterior pituitary gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both named for their effects on the female gonad.

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Androgen

Binding protein (ABP) - keeps the concentration of testosterone in the vicinity of the spermatogenic cells high, which in turn stimulates spermatogenesis.

69

Inhibin

a protein hormone produced by the sustentacular cells, serves as a “barometer” of the normalcy of spermatogenesis

70

Male secondary sex characteristics

features induced in the nonreproductive organs by the male sex hormones (mainly testosterone)—make their appearance at puberty. These include the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair, enhanced hair growth on the chest or other body areas in some men, and a deepening of the voice as the larynx enlarges. The skin thickens and becomes oilier (which predisposes young men to acne), bones grow and increase in density, and skeletal muscles increase in size and mass.

71

Ovaries

the female gonads, are the primary reproductive organs of a female, and like the male testes, ovaries serve a dual purpose: They produce the female gametes (ova) and sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone

72

Female Internal Genitalia

the ovaries and duct system (uterine tubes, the uterus, and the vagina)

73

Ovaries

The paired ovaries flank the uterus on each side. Shaped like an almond and about twice as large, each ovary is held in place by several ligaments in the fork of the iliac blood vessels within the peritoneal cavity

74

Ovarian Ligament

anchors the ovary medially to the uterus

75

Suspensory Ligament

anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall

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mesovarium

suspends it in between suspensory ligament and ovarian ligament

77

ovarian arteries

serves the arteries

78

Tunica Albuginea

fibrous covering of ovaries

79

Ovarian Follicles

tiny saclike structures embedded in the highly vascular connective tissue of the ovary cortex

80

Oocyte

immature egg, encased by one or more layers of very different cells.

81

Follicle Cells

if a single layer is present

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Granulosa Cells

when more than one layer is present.

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Primordial Follicle

one layer of squamouslike follicle cells surrounds the oocyte.

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Primary Follicle

has a single layer of cuboidal or columnartype follicle cells enclosing the oocyte.

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Secondary Follicle

formed when two or more layers of granulosa cells surround the oocyte.

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Late Secondary Follicle

results when small fluid-filled spaces appear between the granulosa cells.

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Vesicular Follicle

also called a Graafian or tertiary follicle, forms when the fluid-filled pockets coalesce to form a central fluid-filled cavity called an antrum.

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Corpus Luteum

After ovulation, the ruptured follicle is transformed into a very different looking glandular structure called the corpus luteum

89

Fallopian Tubes

form the initial part of the female duct system They receive the ovulated oocyte and are the site where fertilization generally occurs. Each uterine tube is about 10 cm (4 inches) long and extends medially from the region of an ovary to empty into the superolateral region of the uterus via a constricted region called the isthmus

90

Ampulla

The distal end of each uterine tube expands as it curves around the ovary

91

infundibulum

an open, funnel-shaped structure bearing ciliated, fingerlike projections called fimbriae (“fringe”) that drape over the ovary.

92

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

extreme severe inflammation of the peritoneal cavity

93

uterus

(Latin for “womb”) is located in the pelvis, anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder It is a hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ that functions to receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum

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cervix

of the uterus is its narrow neck, or outlet, which projects into the vagina inferiorly.

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Cervical Canal

The cavity of the cervix

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Papanicolaou (Pap) smear

or cervical smear test, some of these cells are scraped away and then examined for abnormalities.

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Mesometrium

(“mesentery of the uterus”) portion of the broad ligament

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Lateral Cervical (cardinal) Ligaments

extend from the cervix and superior vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis

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Uterosacral Ligaments

secure the uterus to the sacrum posteriorly.

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Round Ligaments

fibrous ligament that binds the uterus to the anterior body wall

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Prolapsed Uterus

Uterus sinks inferiorly, until the tip of the cervix protrudes through the external vaginal opening

102

Peritoneum

the incomplete outermost serous layer of the uterine wall

103

Myometrium

(“muscle of the uterus”) is the bulky middle layer of the uterine wall, composed of interlacing bundles of smooth muscle

104

Endometrium

the mucosal lining of the uterine cavity

105

Stratum Functionalis

functional layer layer of the endometrium, undergoes cyclic changes in response to blood levels of ovarian hormones and is shed during menstruation

106

Stratum Basalis

or basal layer, forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends.

107

Uterine Arteries

arise from the internal iliacs in the pelvis, ascend along the sides of the uterus, and send branches into the uterine wall

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Arcuate Arteries

branches of the uterine arteries within the myometrium

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Radial Branches

shoots of the arcuate arteries into the endometrium

110

Spiral (coiled) Arteries

to the stratum functionalis. The spiral arteries repeatedly degenerate and regenerate, and it is their spasms that actually cause the functionalis layer to be shed during menstruation.

111

Vagina

(“sheath”) is a thin-walled tube, 8–10 cm (3–4 inches) long. It lies between the bladder and the rectum and extends from the cervix to the body exterior

112

Hymen

incomplete partition of the mucosa near the distal vaginal orifice

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Vaginal Fornix

a vaginal recess produced by the upper end of the vaginal canal loosely surrounds the cervix of the uterus

114

vulva

The female reproductive structures that lie external to the vagina are called the external genitalia, these structures include the mons pubis, labia, clitoris, and structures associated with the vestibule.

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Mons Pubis

(“mountain on the pubis”) is a fatty, rounded area overlying the pubic symphysis.

116

Labia Majora

External fatty skin fold, running posteriorly from the mons pubis

117

Labia Minora

(“smaller”) enclosed by the Labia Majora two thin, hair-free skin folds, homologous to the ventral penis.

118

Vestibule

(“entrance hall”), which contains the external openings of the urethra and the vagina.

119

Greater Vestibular Glands

homologous to the bulbourethral glands of males. These glands release mucus into the vestibule and help to keep it moist and lubricated, facilitating intercourse.

120

Fourchette

Ridge where labia minora come together at the extreme posterior end of the vestibule

121

Clitoris

(“hill”),a small, protruding structure composed largely of erectile tissue, which is homologous to the penis of the male

122

Glans Clitoris

exposed portion of the clitoris

123

Prepuce of the Clitoris

skin fold covering of the clitoris

124

Bulbs of the Vestibule

which lie along each side of the vaginal orifice and deep to the bulbospongiosus muscles, are the homologues of the single penile bulb and corpus spongiosum of the male. During sexual stimulation the bulbs of the vestibule engorge with blood. This may help grip the penis within the vagina and also squeezes the urethral orifice shut

125

Female Perineum

a diamond-shaped region located between the pubic arch anteriorly, the coccyx posteriorly, and the ischial tuberosities laterally

126

Mammary Glands

are present in both sexes, but they normally function only in females.The biological role of the mammary glands is to produce milk to nourish a newborn baby, so they are important only when reproduction has already been accomplished

127

Suspensory Ligaments

that attach the breast to the underlying muscle fascia and to the overlying dermis

128

Glandular Alveoli

produce milk when a woman is lactating.

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Lactiferous Ducts

open to the outside at the nipple.

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Lactiferous Sinus

milk accumulates during nursing.

131

Mammography

X-ray examination that detects breast cancers too small to feel

132

Radical Mastectomy

(“breast cutting”), removal of the entire affected breast, plus all underlying muscles, fascia, and associated lymph nodes.

133

Lumpectomy

less extensive surgery in which only the cancerous part (lump) is excised

134

Simple Mastectomy

removal of the breast tissue only (and perhaps some of the axillary lymph nodes).

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Oogonia

the diploid stem cells of the ovaries

136

Primary Oocytes

...

137

First Polar body

...

138

Primary Oocytes

...

139

Ovum

...

140

Follicular Phase

the period of follicle growth, typically indicated as lasting from the first to the fourteenth day of the cycle.

141

Luteal Phase

the period of corpus luteum activity, days 14–28

142

Theca Folliculi

a layer of connective tissue condenses around the follicle

143

Zona Pellucida

the oocyte secretes a glycoprotein-rich substance that forms a thick transparent extracellular layer or membrane

144

Antrum (“cave”)

the fluid between the granulosa cells coalesces to form a large fluid-filled cavity

145

Corona Radiata

surrounding capsule of granulosa cells

146

Ovulation

occurs when the ballooning ovary wall ruptures and expels the secondary oocyte, still surrounded by its corona radiata, into the peritoneal cavity

147

Menarche

first menstral cycle

148

Menstrual Cycle

a series of cyclic changes that the uterine endometrium goes through each month as it responds to the waxing and waning of ovarian hormones in the blood.

149

Menstruation

or menses, the uterus sheds all but the deepest part of its endometrium

150

Female Sexual Response

similar to that of males in most respects. During sexual excitement, the clitoris, vaginal mucosa, bulbs of the vestibule, and breasts engorge with blood; the nipples erect; and increased activity of the vestibular glands and “sweating” of the vaginal walls lubricates the vestibule and facilitates entry of the penis.

151

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

also called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or venereal diseases (VDs), are infectious diseases spread through sexual contact.

152

gonorrhea

is Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which invades the mucosae of the reproductive and urinary tracts. These bacteria are spread by contact with genital, anal, and pharyngeal mucosal surfaces. Commonly called “the clap,” gonorrhea occurs most frequently in adolescents and young adults.

153

Syphilis

caused by Treponema pallidum, a corkscrewshaped bacterium, is usually transmitted sexually, but it can be contracted congenitally from an infected mother. Fetuses infected with syphilis are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth. The bacterium easily penetrates intact mucosae and abraded skin.Within a few hours of exposure, an asymptomatic bodywide infection is in progress. After an incubation period of two to three weeks, a red, painless primary lesion called a chancre appears at the site of bacterial invasion.

154

Chlamydia

a bacterium with a viruslike dependence on host cells. Its incubation period within the body cells is about one week. Symptoms include urethritis (involving painful, frequent urination and a thick penile discharge); vaginal discharge; abdominal, rectal, or testicular pain; painful intercourse; and irregular menses.

155

Trichomoniasis

the most common curable STI in sexually active young women in the United States. Accounting for about 7.4 million new cases of STI per year, this parasitic infection is easily and inexpensively treated once diagnosed. Trichomoniasis is indicated by a yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. However, many of its victims exhibit no symptoms.

156

Genital warts

due to the human papillomavirus (HPV)—actually a group of about 60 viruses—is the second most common STI in the United States. About 6.2 million new cases of genital warts develop in Americans each year, and it appears that HPV infection increases the risk for cancers in infected body regions. Indeed, the virus is linked to 80% of all cases of invasive cervical cancer. Importantly, most of the strains that cause genital warts do not cause cervical cancer.

157

Genital Herpes

the human herpes virus type 2, and these viruses are among the most difficult human pathogens to control. They remain silent for weeks or years and then suddenly flare up, causing a burst of blisterlike lesions.

158

Nondisjunction

abnormal combinations of sex chromosomes occur in the zygote and cause striking abnormalities in sexual and reproductive system development.

159

Gonadal Ridges

The gonads of both males and females begin their development during week 5 of gestation as masses of mesoderm

160

Müllerian, ducts

(future female ducts) develop lateral to the mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts (future male ducts), and both sets of ducts empty into a common chamber called the cloaca.

161

sexually indifferent stage

gonadal ridge tissue can develop into either male or female gonads and both duct systems are present.

162

Genital tubercle

all embryos exhibit a small projection

163

urethral groove

the external opening of the urogenital sinus, is on the tubercle’s inferior surface.

164

Gubernaculum

strong fibrous cord that guides the testies

165

Puberty

the period of life when the reproductive organs grow to adult size and become functional.

166

Menopause

considered to have occurred when a whole year has passed without menstruation.