Chapter 22: 1--The New Frontier Flashcards

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how did Democrat John F. Kennedy and Republican Richard Nixon change American politics forever?
What did this do to television?
Who won the debate and why?

-on September 26, 1960 they participated in the 1st of 4 live televised debates
-put TV in national spotlight and made it the communications vehicle of choice for politicians
-Kennedy won because of his better appearance and speaking directly to camera, Nixon had looked bad but radio listeners said he won


who was Kennedy before his presidency?

-a Massachusetts Democrat, served in House of Reps and Senate for 14 years, followed distinguished service in the U.S. Navy in WWI
-but faced serous obstacles in quest for presidency


how was Kennedy different from past presidents?

-only 43 years old, many questioned if has experience needed for nation's highest office
-Roman Catholic, no Catholic had ever been elected president (helped put end to religion issue when won primary of Protestant state West Virginia


what did Kennedy promise during his campaign?

-to spur the sluggish economy (during last years of Eisenhower administration GNP had grown very slowly, economy suffered several recessions)
-proclaimed time to "get America moving again"


who ran with Kennedy in the presidential election of 1960?

-Lyndon Baines Johnson


as a result of the very close victory for Kennedy in 1960:
-what accusations were made?
-what was the result
what did Kennedy do nevertheless?

-that the Democrats won Illinois (where Nixon could of won by a few thousand) through fraud
-Kennedy entered office without a strong mandate, without one he would have difficulty pushing his more controversial measures through Congress
-took office with vigor and confidence


define mandate

public endorsement of a president's proposals


New Frontier

referred to Kennedy's proposals to improve the economy, assist the poor, and speed up the space program


Kennedy hoped to work with business leaders to _________________, but he often faced _____________

-promote economic growth
-resistance from executives who were suspicious of his plans


-what happened in the spring of 1962 in relation to the steel industry?
-how did Kennedy react and what was he worried about?
-what were the companies reactions to Kennedy's reaction?

-U.S. Steel Company raised steel price by $6 a ton & other firms followed
-worried about inflation, Kennedy called increase unjustifiable, charged it showed no thoughts about the public interest. ordered fed legislation into the possibility of price fixing
-under pressure, they backed down.


what was the longer effect of the occurrences with the steel industry in the spring of 1962?

-business leaders remained angry, stock market fell in its steepest drop since Great Crash of 1929


-what did Kennedy propose to help end the economic slump in 1962?
-what would the measure do?
-what eventually happened to Kennedy's proposal?

-in 1963 he proposed a large tax cut over three years
-it would reduce gov income and create a budget deficit. Kennedy believed that extra money in taxpayer's wallets would stimulate their economy and eventually bring in added tax revenues-it got stuck in Congress


Kennedy was also eager to take action against _____________, in his first two years in office he hoped that he could help the poor simply by _________

-poverty and inequality
-stimulating the economy


Michael Harrington

-wrote "The Other America" which revealed that while many Americans were enjoying the prosperity of 50s, 1/5 of population living below poverty line
-became convinced that poor needed direct federal aid


What happened to Kennedy's legislation in Congress?

-his most ambitious plans for federal education aid and medical care for the elderly both failed
-some measures passed, including an increase in minimum wage, the Housing Act of 1961, the 24th Amendment, Equal Pay Act


Housing Act of 1961

provided #4.9 billion for urban renewal


24th Amendment

outlawed the poll tax


Equal Pay Act

-passed June 1963
-added into Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, a New Deal program, it stated that all employees doing substantially the same work in the same workplace must be paid equally


how did Kennedy seek to achieve his goals through executive orders?

-including orders on providing equal opportunity in housing and establishing an expanded program of food distribution to needy families
-other orders established President
s Committee on Equal Employment, the President's Commission on the Status of Women, and the President's Council on Aging


list the things other acts in Kennedy's presidency did (13): executive order provided high-quality surplus food to unemployed Americans, 2.the larges fastest defense buildup in peacetime history & Kennedy boosted missile program, Area Redevelopment law helps communities plagues with long-term unemployment, 4.changes in Social Security extend benefits to 5 mil allowing Americans to retire & collect benefits at 62, doubling fed resources to combat water pollution, 6.creation of National Seashore Parks, part of National Park System, 7.expansion & increase of min. wage, 8. creation of 1st fed program to address juvenile delinquency, 9.changes in welfare system aimed at helping ailing families instead of encouraging dependency on gov benefits, of world's largest nuclear power plant in Hanford, Washington, 11.tighten food & drug laws to protect against untested drugs, 12.sign a Trade Expansion act to reduce American protectionism & encourage free trade 13.signing of Nuclear Test ban Treaty 1st nuclear weapons agreement


was Kennedy successful in his effort to breathe life unto the space program?



what had Americans been doing following S.U's Sputnik satellite in 1957?

-gov agencies & private industries had been working furiously with NASA to place manned spacecraft in orbit round Earth
-several pilots chosen 2 train as astronauts-- 1959
-gov spending & future of NASA uncertain when Kennedy appointed task force recommend NASA to concentrate on exploratory space missions w/out human crews


what happened in April 1961 in terms of space exploration?

-SU announced that Yuri Gagarin circled Earth on board spacecraft Vostok becoming 1st human to travel in space
-his flight rekindled American's fears that their technology was falling behind SU's


May 5, 1961, U.S. attempt to send man to space

-Astronaut Alan Shepard made 15 min flight that reached altitude of 115 miles but didn't orbit Earth


what did the success of Alan Shepard's space flight convince Kennedy to do?
what happened as a result of the challenge?

-success convinced Kennedy to issue challenge (May 25): to land person on moon
-funding increased


who was the 1st American to orbit Earth?

-Feb 20,1962: John Glenn completed 3 orbits


When did NASA finally meet Kennedy's challenge?

-June 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong 1st man on the moon


What was Kennedy doing in Texas right before he got assassinated?

-Nov 22, 1963 he was looking ahead to the reelection campaign the next year & went to Texas to mobilize support, he rode in downtown Dallas in and open limousine in a parade with Texas governor
-he and governor Connally shot, but Connally survived Kennedy died quickly in the hospital


what was the national response to Kennedy's assassination?

-country stunned
-thousands of people gathered in streets of Washington, stood in near silence except for weeping, America shattered
-millions glued to TV as impact of tragedy sank in


Warren Commission

-appointed by President Johnson November 29 (aka The President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy) known after its chairman Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren
-commissions determined Oswald had acted alone
-since then case explored many times, some investigations support theory that Oswald was involved in larger conspiracy