Lecture Test 4
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?
How many Lumbar spinal nerves are there?
What is the plexus that supplies sensory and motor nerves to the upper extremities called?
The peripheral nerves that come off the lower end of the spinal cord and float in the spinal canal is called what?
Spinal nerves and cranial nerves are part of the what system?
Peripheral nervous system
Spinal nerves contain what types of axons?
Nerve plexuses contain what?
An individual muscle receives innervation from What?
more than one spinal cord level
The cervical plexus is made up of the spinal roots what?
C1 - C5
Most of the branches of the cervical plexus are what?
The upper extremity is innervated by branches of what?
The single most important nerve of the cervical plexus is what?
What contains fibers from spinal cord levels C3 - C5
The phrenic nerve innervates what muscle?
The ventral rami that contributes to the brachial plexus come from spinal cord levels what?
What is the correct sequence for the parts of the brachial plexus?
What are the major nerves of the brachial plexus that supply innervation to the arm, forearm, and hand?
Motor innervations to the deltoid muscle is how?
Motor innervation to the biceps brachii muscle is how?
Motor innervation to the extensor muscles of the arms is how?
What is Often involved in carpal tunnel syndrome?
What is the largest nerve of the brachail plexus?
What is the motor innervation to most of the intrinsic muscle of the hand?
The lumbar plexus arises from the spinal cord levels _____?
L1 - L5
The largest branch of lumbar plexus is the ________ nerve that innervates the quadriceps muscle?
The sacral plexus arises from spinal cord levels________?
The largest nerve of the sacral plexus (and the longest, thickest nerve in the body) is the ______ nerve?
The sciatic nerve terminates in the lower leg as the what?
Tibial and Fibular nerve
Cranial nerve V is what?
Cranial nerve IX is what?
The cranial nerve that is associated with motor movement of the tongue is the what?
The cranial nerves that produce movement of the globe of the eye(eyeball) are what?
The cranial nerve that is associated with the sense of smell is what?
The cranial nerves that work together for sensation in the palate, swallowing and vocalization are what?
The cranial nerve with the widest distribution including heart, lungs and digestive system is what?
The cranial nerve that sensory fibers that pass through the cribiform plate is what?
Which nerve controls motor movement of the face (facial expression)?
Which nerves supplies sensation from the face and motor innervation to the the muscles of mastication (chewing)?
What nerve controls hearing and equilibrium?
What nerve controls pupillary contriction and eyelid opening?
What nerve controls visual acuity?
What is the meningeal space that contains blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid?
What is the correct pathway regarding production, flow and reabsorption of the cerebral spinal fluid?
Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
What does the gray matter consist of?
Neuronal cell bodies
The right and left hemisphere of the cerebrum communicate with each other primarily over the commissural fibers of what?
What system has a cingulate gyrus, parahippocampus and amygdale?
What supplies melatonin?
What has the cardiorespiratory nuclei?
What gland controls endocrine function?
What lobe of the brain controls motor control?
What lobe of the brain controls visual information?
What lobe of the brain controls somatosensory information?
What lobe of the brain controls auditory information and memory?
What is located in the parietal lobe?
postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
What gyrus is there a larger area representing the hand compared to the shoulder?
Postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
What gyrus is arranged in a precise manner as to location of body part representation?
Postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
What structures are specifically associated with motor function in the central nervous system?
Both of the following statements are regarding what?
The glial cell that participates in regulating the flow of substances from the blood to the neurons is the astrocyte.
The basement membrane underlying the endothelial cells i thicker than other areas of the brain.
Blood brain barrier
The glial cell that participates in regulating the flow of substances from the blood to the neurons is what?
What membrane underlying the endothelial cells is thicker than other areas of the brain?
If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to the broca's area is damaged, what is the result?
Motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost
The white matter in the cerebellar hemispheres is termed what?
The cerebellar hemispheres are most involved in regulating movement of the extremities while the vermis is most involved in what?
regulating movement in the trunk
What is the cell most associated with cerebellar function?
The dorsal roots of the spinal cord contain what?
The ventral roots of the spinal cord contain what?
What plays a role in autonomic functions and level of consciousness?
What helps regulate initiation and termination of motor movement?
What neuron fire prior to eye movement?
How are the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei interrelated?
They are part of the basal ganglia
Where is the amygdala located?
end of the caudate tail
What is the major sensory relay station?
What basal ganglia is most medial?
What ascends from caudale to head and has an internal capsule?
What controls and integrates activities of the autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland?
The corpus callosum, anterior commisure and posterior commisure is made up of what?
What are axons that connect a gyrus in one hemisphere to a gyrus in the opposite hemisphere called?
What is the caudate nucleus, putamen & Globus pallidus?
The thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus and subthalamus are all part of what?
What carries ascending sensory fibers and descending motor fibers?
What are association tracts, commissural tracts and projection tracts of the cerebral made of?
Where is the primary visual cortex?
Where is the Wernicke's area located?
Temporal and Parietal lobe
What area interprets the meaning of words thus comprehension?
Wernicke's area of the Temporal lobe
Where is the red nucleus and substantia nigra?
What provides crude perception of touch, pressure, pain and temperature?
What produces the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone?
What contains the subthalamus nuclei and portions of the red nucleus and the substania nigra?
Subthalamus of the diencephalon
What is the function of the prefrontal eye field?
Voluntary eye movement
Where is the primary motor cortex?
Frontal lobe in the precentral gyrus
What are axons connecting gyri in the same hemisphere?
Where is the central sulcus/fissure?
It separates the frontal lobe from the Parietal lobe
What transmits neural information from basal ganglia and cerebellum to the motor cortex?
Where is the primary somatosensory cortex?
Postcentral gyrus of the Parietal lobe
What does the parieto-occipital sulcus do?
Separates the parietal lobe and occipital lobe
What is the function of the sensory areas in the cerebrum?
It interprets sensory impulses
What is the function of motor areas in the cerebrum?
Controls muscular movement
What is the function of association areas in the cerebrum?
emotional and intellectual processes
What lobe has larger areas devoted to muscle groups that do skilled motion and is where the precentral gyrus is located?
What helps maintain the waking state and establishes patterns of sleep?
What controls body temperature and regulates eating and drinking behavior?
Where is the lateral fissure?
It separates the temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes
Where is the longitudinal fissure?
It separates the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum
Where is the postcentral gyrus located?
Where is the Insula lobe of the cerebrum?
Deep inside the lateral fissure
What is part of the Diencephalon, consists of pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, and the habenuclar nuclei?
What neuron fires prior to body movement?
What is found in all lobes of the brain,, and is connected by association fibers?
Association areas of the cerebral cortex
What are the lobes of the cerebrum?
Where is the primary auditory area?
What is a gyrus-gyri?
Folds in the cerebrum
Where is gray matter found in the cerebrum?
Outer rim of the cerebral cortex
What is the cerebral cortex made up of?
Gray matter on outer rim and white matter tracts deep
What is the thick band of white matter that runs immediately lateral to the thalamic nuclei?
Axons that connect lower brain centers with higher centers and vice versua are made up of what?
Where does gut feelings of hunger, thirst, air hunger... and carry's information about homeostatic balance happen?
The 2 cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by what?
What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)?
Mechanical and chemical protection
Circulation(exchange of nutrients and waste products)
What basal ganglia is most lateral?
What regulates emotional and behavioral patterns and circadian rhythms?
Where is the primary somatosensory cortex?
What surrounds the brain & spinal cord and travels down the central canal of the spinal cord?
What basal ganglia is most superior?
What gives meaning and interpretation to the information that arrives at the primary areas of the brain?
Somatosensory association areas, visual association areas, & auditory association areas
Where does the conscious physical sensation and conscious emotional awareness comerge?
Right frontal insula
What lobe is involved in many behavioral and personality aspects?
What lobe is the primary motor cortex and somatotopic organization?
What coordinates gross, automatic muscle movements and regulates muscle tone?
What is the limbic systems function in the cerebrum?
Emotional aspects of behavior related to survival
What is the largest white matter tract in the brain?
The 2 lateral ventricles in the cerebrum are separated by what?
The membrane septum pellucidum
What are results in production of speech where comprehension is fine, but difficulty in articulation?
Broca's area of the frontal lobe
What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?
Interventricular foramen of Monroe
Where is somatic sensation that is orientate inward such as heart, lungs, GI tract?
What lobe "lights up" when certain feelings occur such as love/hate, lust, disgust, gratitude, guilt and humiliation?
Right frontal insula
Formation of CSF occurs where?
Choroid plexus in the superior portion of the ventricles
What connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle?
Cerebral aquaduct of sylvius
CSF is reabsorbed back into the blood via?
Arachnoid villia which are finger like extensions that project into the venous sinuses of the dura
Foramen of Luschka and Magendie allow what?
Flow of CSF into the subarachnoid space
Where is the prefontal eyefield area?
What cranial nerve innervates pupillary light reflexes?
What does mydriasis mean?
What does miosis mean?
What cranial nerve innervates the lateral rectus?
What cranial nerve innervates the superior oblique?
What cranial nerve innervates the superior, inferior and medial rectus and the inferior oblique?
What type of nerve is VI Abducens?
What type of nerve is IV trochlear?
What type of nere is the III Oculomotor?
What cranial nerve is responsible for extraocular movement?
What cranial nerve is the motor for muscle of mastication and sensory from face and scalp, oral and nasal cavity and cornea?
What type of nerve is the V Trigeminal?
Both sensory and motor
What cranial nerve is involved in V-1, V-2, V-3?
What cranial nerve is responsible for closing the eye tightly?
What cranial nerve innervates many of the muscles of facial expression and is responsible for taste in the anterior 2/3 portion of the tongue?
What type of cranial nerve is VII facical?
Both sensory and motor
What nerve is responsible for hearing and equilibrium balance and carries sound impulses from the cochlea to the brain?
What type of nerve is VIII Vestibulocochlear?
What type of cranial nerve is the X vagus and IX glossopharyngeal?
Sensory and motor
What cranial nerve allows the palate to elevate symmetrically?
What type of nerve is XI spinal accessory?
What cranial nerve innervates the Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle?
XI Spinal accessory nerve
What type of cranial nerve is the XII Hypoglossal?
What cranial nerve is responsible for tongue movement and innervates the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
Abnormality of the substantia nigra and its ability to produce dopamine is a key feature of what?
What neurons are the only corticol neuron that send axons through the white matter to synapse with the central nuclei of the cerebellum?
What are sulcus-sulci in the cerebrum?
What are fissures in the cerebrum?
Deep groves that separate large regions of the brain