Lecture Test 4

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1

How many cervical spinal nerves are there?

8 pairs

2

How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?

12 pairs

3

How many Lumbar spinal nerves are there?

5 pairs

4

What is the plexus that supplies sensory and motor nerves to the upper extremities called?

Brachial plexus

5

The peripheral nerves that come off the lower end of the spinal cord and float in the spinal canal is called what?

Cauda equina

6

Spinal nerves and cranial nerves are part of the what system?

Peripheral nervous system

7

Spinal nerves contain what types of axons?

Motor
Sensory
Autonomic

8

Nerve plexuses contain what?

Ventral rami

9

An individual muscle receives innervation from What?

more than one spinal cord level

10

The cervical plexus is made up of the spinal roots what?

C1 - C5

11

Most of the branches of the cervical plexus are what?

Sensory

12

The upper extremity is innervated by branches of what?

Brachial plexus

13

The single most important nerve of the cervical plexus is what?

Phrenic nerve

14

What contains fibers from spinal cord levels C3 - C5

Phrenic nerve

15

The phrenic nerve innervates what muscle?

Diaphragm

16

The ventral rami that contributes to the brachial plexus come from spinal cord levels what?

C5 -T1

17

What is the correct sequence for the parts of the brachial plexus?

Roots
Trunks
Divisions
Cords

18

What are the major nerves of the brachial plexus that supply innervation to the arm, forearm, and hand?

Axillary
Musculocutaneous
radial
ulnar
median

19

Motor innervations to the deltoid muscle is how?

Axillary nerve

20

Motor innervation to the biceps brachii muscle is how?

Musculocutaneous nerve

21

Motor innervation to the extensor muscles of the arms is how?

Radial nerve

22

What is Often involved in carpal tunnel syndrome?

Median nerve

23

What is the largest nerve of the brachail plexus?

Radial nerve

24

What is the motor innervation to most of the intrinsic muscle of the hand?

Ulnar nerve

25

The lumbar plexus arises from the spinal cord levels _____?

L1 - L5

26

The largest branch of lumbar plexus is the ________ nerve that innervates the quadriceps muscle?

Femoral

27

The sacral plexus arises from spinal cord levels________?

L4 -S3

28

The largest nerve of the sacral plexus (and the longest, thickest nerve in the body) is the ______ nerve?

Sciatic

29

The sciatic nerve terminates in the lower leg as the what?

Tibial and Fibular nerve

30

Cranial nerve V is what?

Trigeminal nerve

31

Cranial nerve IX is what?

Glossopharyngeal nerve

32

The cranial nerve that is associated with motor movement of the tongue is the what?

Hypoglossal nerve

33

The cranial nerves that produce movement of the globe of the eye(eyeball) are what?

Trochlear nerve
Abducens nerve
Oculomotor nerve

34

The cranial nerve that is associated with the sense of smell is what?

Olfactory nerve

35

The cranial nerves that work together for sensation in the palate, swallowing and vocalization are what?

Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vagus nerve

36

The cranial nerve with the widest distribution including heart, lungs and digestive system is what?

Vagus

37

The cranial nerve that sensory fibers that pass through the cribiform plate is what?

Olfactory

38

Which nerve controls motor movement of the face (facial expression)?

CN II

39

Which nerves supplies sensation from the face and motor innervation to the the muscles of mastication (chewing)?

CN V

40

What nerve controls hearing and equilibrium?

CN VIII

41

What nerve controls pupillary contriction and eyelid opening?

CN III

42

What nerve controls visual acuity?

CN II

43

What is the meningeal space that contains blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid?

Subarachnoid space

44

What is the correct pathway regarding production, flow and reabsorption of the cerebral spinal fluid?

Choroid plexus
Lateral ventricle
Third ventricle
Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius
Fourth ventricle

45

What does the gray matter consist of?

Neuronal cell bodies

46

The right and left hemisphere of the cerebrum communicate with each other primarily over the commissural fibers of what?

Corpus callosum

47

What system has a cingulate gyrus, parahippocampus and amygdale?

Limbic system

48

What supplies melatonin?

Pineal gland

49

What has the cardiorespiratory nuclei?

Brainstem

50

What gland controls endocrine function?

Pituitary gland

51

What lobe of the brain controls motor control?

Frontal

52

What lobe of the brain controls visual information?

Occipital

53

What lobe of the brain controls somatosensory information?

Parietal

54

What lobe of the brain controls auditory information and memory?

Temporal

55

What is located in the parietal lobe?

postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex

56

What gyrus is there a larger area representing the hand compared to the shoulder?

Postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex

57

What gyrus is arranged in a precise manner as to location of body part representation?

Postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex

58

What structures are specifically associated with motor function in the central nervous system?

Thalamus
Putamen
Cerebellum

59

Both of the following statements are regarding what?
The glial cell that participates in regulating the flow of substances from the blood to the neurons is the astrocyte.
The basement membrane underlying the endothelial cells i thicker than other areas of the brain.

Blood brain barrier

60

The glial cell that participates in regulating the flow of substances from the blood to the neurons is what?

Astrocyte

61

What membrane underlying the endothelial cells is thicker than other areas of the brain?

Basement

62

If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to the broca's area is damaged, what is the result?

Motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost

63

The white matter in the cerebellar hemispheres is termed what?

Arbor vitae

64

The cerebellar hemispheres are most involved in regulating movement of the extremities while the vermis is most involved in what?

regulating movement in the trunk

65

What is the cell most associated with cerebellar function?

Purkinje cell

66

The dorsal roots of the spinal cord contain what?

Sensory axons

67

The ventral roots of the spinal cord contain what?

Motor axons

68

What plays a role in autonomic functions and level of consciousness?

Thalamus

69

What helps regulate initiation and termination of motor movement?

Putamen
&
Caudate nucleus

70

What neuron fire prior to eye movement?

Caudate nucleus

71

How are the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei interrelated?

They are part of the basal ganglia

72

Where is the amygdala located?

end of the caudate tail

73

What is the major sensory relay station?

Thalamus

74

What basal ganglia is most medial?

Globus pallidus

75

What ascends from caudale to head and has an internal capsule?

Projection tracts

76

What controls and integrates activities of the autonomic nervous system and pituitary gland?

Hypothalamus

77

The corpus callosum, anterior commisure and posterior commisure is made up of what?

Commissural tracts

78

What are axons that connect a gyrus in one hemisphere to a gyrus in the opposite hemisphere called?

Commisural tracts

79

What is the caudate nucleus, putamen & Globus pallidus?

Basal Ganglia

80

The thalamus, epithalamus, hypothalamus and subthalamus are all part of what?

Diencephalon

81

What carries ascending sensory fibers and descending motor fibers?

Internal capsules

82

What are association tracts, commissural tracts and projection tracts of the cerebral made of?

White matter

83

Where is the primary visual cortex?

Occipital Lobe

84

Where is the Wernicke's area located?

Temporal and Parietal lobe

85

What area interprets the meaning of words thus comprehension?

Wernicke's area of the Temporal lobe

86

Where is the red nucleus and substantia nigra?

Subthalamus

87

What provides crude perception of touch, pressure, pain and temperature?

Thalamus

88

What produces the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone?

Hypothalamus

89

What contains the subthalamus nuclei and portions of the red nucleus and the substania nigra?

Subthalamus of the diencephalon

90

What is the function of the prefrontal eye field?

Voluntary eye movement

91

Where is the primary motor cortex?

Frontal lobe in the precentral gyrus

92

What are axons connecting gyri in the same hemisphere?

Association tracts

93

Where is the central sulcus/fissure?

It separates the frontal lobe from the Parietal lobe

94

What transmits neural information from basal ganglia and cerebellum to the motor cortex?

Thalamus

95

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex?

Postcentral gyrus of the Parietal lobe

96

What does the parieto-occipital sulcus do?

Separates the parietal lobe and occipital lobe

97

What is the function of the sensory areas in the cerebrum?

It interprets sensory impulses

98

What is the function of motor areas in the cerebrum?

Controls muscular movement

99

What is the function of association areas in the cerebrum?

emotional and intellectual processes

100

What lobe has larger areas devoted to muscle groups that do skilled motion and is where the precentral gyrus is located?

Frontal lobe

101

What helps maintain the waking state and establishes patterns of sleep?

Hypothalamus

102

What controls body temperature and regulates eating and drinking behavior?

Hypothalamus

103

Where is the lateral fissure?

It separates the temporal lobe from frontal and parietal lobes

104

Where is the longitudinal fissure?

It separates the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum

105

Where is the postcentral gyrus located?

Parietal lobe

106

Where is the Insula lobe of the cerebrum?

Deep inside the lateral fissure

107

What is part of the Diencephalon, consists of pineal gland, which secretes melatonin, and the habenuclar nuclei?

Epithalamus

108

What neuron fires prior to body movement?

Putamen

109

What is found in all lobes of the brain,, and is connected by association fibers?

Association areas of the cerebral cortex

110

What are the lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
Insula

111

Where is the primary auditory area?

Temporal lobae

112

What is a gyrus-gyri?

Folds in the cerebrum

113

Where is gray matter found in the cerebrum?

Outer rim of the cerebral cortex

114

What is the cerebral cortex made up of?

Gray matter on outer rim and white matter tracts deep

115

What is the thick band of white matter that runs immediately lateral to the thalamic nuclei?

Internal capsule

116

Axons that connect lower brain centers with higher centers and vice versua are made up of what?

Projection tracts

117

Where does gut feelings of hunger, thirst, air hunger... and carry's information about homeostatic balance happen?

Insula

118

The 2 cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum are connected by what?

Corpus callosum

119

What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)?

Mechanical and chemical protection
Circulation(exchange of nutrients and waste products)

120

What basal ganglia is most lateral?

Putamen

121

What regulates emotional and behavioral patterns and circadian rhythms?

Hypothalamus

122

Where is the primary somatosensory cortex?

Parietal lobe

123

What surrounds the brain & spinal cord and travels down the central canal of the spinal cord?

CSF

124

What basal ganglia is most superior?

Caudate nucleus

125

What gives meaning and interpretation to the information that arrives at the primary areas of the brain?

Somatosensory association areas, visual association areas, & auditory association areas

126

Where does the conscious physical sensation and conscious emotional awareness comerge?

Right frontal insula

127

What lobe is involved in many behavioral and personality aspects?

Frontal lobe

128

What lobe is the primary motor cortex and somatotopic organization?

Frontal lobe

129

What coordinates gross, automatic muscle movements and regulates muscle tone?

Basal ganglia

130

What is the limbic systems function in the cerebrum?

Emotional aspects of behavior related to survival

131

What is the largest white matter tract in the brain?

Corpus callosum

132

The 2 lateral ventricles in the cerebrum are separated by what?

The membrane septum pellucidum

133

What are results in production of speech where comprehension is fine, but difficulty in articulation?

Broca's area of the frontal lobe

134

What connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle?

Interventricular foramen of Monroe

135

Where is somatic sensation that is orientate inward such as heart, lungs, GI tract?

Insula

136

What lobe "lights up" when certain feelings occur such as love/hate, lust, disgust, gratitude, guilt and humiliation?

Right frontal insula

137

Formation of CSF occurs where?

Choroid plexus in the superior portion of the ventricles

138

What connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle?

Cerebral aquaduct of sylvius

139

CSF is reabsorbed back into the blood via?

Arachnoid villia which are finger like extensions that project into the venous sinuses of the dura

140

Foramen of Luschka and Magendie allow what?

Flow of CSF into the subarachnoid space

141

Where is the prefontal eyefield area?

Frontal lobe

142

What cranial nerve innervates pupillary light reflexes?

II Optic
III Oculomotor

143

What does mydriasis mean?

Dilation

144

What does miosis mean?

Constriction

145

What cranial nerve innervates the lateral rectus?

VI Abducens

146

What cranial nerve innervates the superior oblique?

IV Trochlear

147

What cranial nerve innervates the superior, inferior and medial rectus and the inferior oblique?

III Oculomotor

148

What type of nerve is VI Abducens?

Motor

149

What type of nerve is IV trochlear?

Motor

150

What type of nere is the III Oculomotor?

Motor

151

What cranial nerve is responsible for extraocular movement?

III Oculomotor
IV Trochlear
VI Abducens

152

What cranial nerve is the motor for muscle of mastication and sensory from face and scalp, oral and nasal cavity and cornea?

V Trigeminal

153

What type of nerve is the V Trigeminal?

Both sensory and motor

154

What cranial nerve is involved in V-1, V-2, V-3?

V Trigeminal

155

What cranial nerve is responsible for closing the eye tightly?

VII Facial

156

What cranial nerve innervates many of the muscles of facial expression and is responsible for taste in the anterior 2/3 portion of the tongue?

VII Facial

157

What type of cranial nerve is VII facical?

Both sensory and motor

158

What nerve is responsible for hearing and equilibrium balance and carries sound impulses from the cochlea to the brain?

VIII Vestibulococholear

159

What type of nerve is VIII Vestibulocochlear?

Sensory

160

What type of cranial nerve is the X vagus and IX glossopharyngeal?

Sensory and motor

161

What cranial nerve allows the palate to elevate symmetrically?

IX Glossopharyngeal
X Vagus

162

What type of nerve is XI spinal accessory?

Motor

163

What cranial nerve innervates the Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscle?

XI Spinal accessory nerve

164

What type of cranial nerve is the XII Hypoglossal?

Motor

165

What cranial nerve is responsible for tongue movement and innervates the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

XII Hypoglossal

166

Abnormality of the substantia nigra and its ability to produce dopamine is a key feature of what?

Parkinson's disease

167

What neurons are the only corticol neuron that send axons through the white matter to synapse with the central nuclei of the cerebellum?

Perkiunje Cells

168

What are sulcus-sulci in the cerebrum?

Shallow groves

169

What are fissures in the cerebrum?

Deep groves that separate large regions of the brain