Urinary System 1
the urinary system helps to maintain both the...
volume and chemical makeup of the blood
the passage of substances across an epithelial layer into the blood or lymph
occurs when hydrostatic pressure forces water and small solutes across a membrane
the elimination of wastes from the body
the expulsion of urine from the urinary bladder
passage of a substance from a cell to extracellular
any substance not useful to the body
the condition in which the body's internal environment remains within normal physiological limits
the water and small solutes that are filtered (pushed through the membrane by hydrostatic pressure)
nitrogen-containing organic molecules other than
proteins, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine
what types of tissues do the renal layers have
1. renal fascia-dense irregular connective tissue
2. perirenal fat capsule- adipose tissue
3. fibrous capsule- dense irregular connective tissue
creatine phosphate equation
creatine phosphate + ADP ---> ATP + creatine
1. rapid weight loss-> 2. fat capsules diminish-> 3. kidney drops to lower position (renal ptosis)-> 4. ureter kinked blocking urine flow-> 5. urine backs up into kidney, increasing hydrostatic pressure there (hydronephrosis)-> 6. renal damage
depression through which blood vessels and nerves enter and leave an organ
cortical radiate arteries and veins are also known as...
interlobular arteries and veins
a nephron is made up of...
-loop of henle
the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located...
where the renal tubule makes contact with the
the juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of:
1. juxtaglomerular cells
2. macula densa
-modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole that:
a) detect distension of the afferent arteriole when BP increases
b) secrete the enzyme renin
- cluster of modified epithelial cells lining the renal tubule that are columnar in shape and densely packed.
a) detects flow rate of the tubular fluid
b) secretes a vasoconstrictor chemical.
-selectively permeable membrane through which blood is filtered
-made up by the wall of the glomerular capillary and the wall of the glomerular capsule (visceral portion)
layers of filtration membrabe
1. capillary endothelium
2. capillary basement membrane
3. capsular basement membrane
4. capsular epithelium (visceral layer of glomerular capsule, composed of podocytes)
made up by the wall of a peritubular capillary and the wall of the renal tubule