Chapter 21:5--The Movement Takes a New Turn

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James Baldwin

-wrote essays and novel which included powerful descriptions of the black experience that touched both black and white Americans deeply
-strong voice for the civil rights movement, wrote about damaging effects of segregation in the U.S.
-in 1968 bestseller "The Fire Next Time" told how generations of oppression and suffering set blacks apart but made them stronger


Malcolm X

-a radical and militant political leader born Malcolm Little in Nebraska 1925
-father had spread the "back-to-Africa" message, died when Little was little
-turned to crime, spent seven years in prison
-joined Nation of Islam (often called Black Muslims), released, changed name, spent next 12 years as a minister of the Nation of Islam, spreading ideas of black nationalism
-fierce speeches won him many followers


black nationalism

-a belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the black community


Nation of Islam

-often called Black Muslims, viewed white society as oppressive, preached black separation and self-help
-members did not seek change through political means but waited for Allah to create the Black Nation, in meantime tried to lead righteous lives and become economically self-sufficient


Elijah Muhammad

-leader of the Nation of Islam, taught that Allah would bring about a "Black Nation" a union among all nonwhite peoples
-for him the enemy of the Nation of Islam was white society


Why did Malcolm X disagree with both the tactics and the goals of the early civil rights movement?

-called March on Washington "Farce on Washington," expressed irritation at non-violent protest
-instead of preaching brotherly love rejected ideas of integration ('why would anyone want to join white society')


what did Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad disagree on?
what came of this disagreement?

-about many things, including political action
-1964 Malcolm X left Nation of Islam and formed his own religious organization called Muslim Mosque, Inc. then made a pilgrimage or religious journey to Mecca the holy city of Islam in Saudi Arabia


what came of Malcolm X's pilgrimage to Mecca?

-seeing millions of Muslims of all races worshiping together peacefully had a profound effect on him: it changed his views about separatism and hatred of white people
-when returned was ready to work with other civil rights leader and even white Americans on some issues


How did Malcolm X's change of heart about separatism and hatred of white people earn him some enemies and what came of this?

-in February 1965, nine months after his change of heart, he was shot to death at a rally in New York
-three members of the Nation of Islam were charged with murder


what is Malcolm X's final legacy after his death?

-his message of black nationalism lived on
-he particularly influenced younger members of the SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee


Stokely Carmichael

-born in West Indies in 1941, came to U.S. at age 11 and was soon involved in protests
-rose to SNCC leadership, group became more radical
-had heard Malcolm X's message and after being beaten and jailed for participating in demonstration he was tired of nonviolent protest
-called on SNCC workers to carry guns fro self-defense, wanted to make the group exclusively black, rejecting white activists
-introduced idea of black power


black power

-an idea introduced by Carmichael which signified blacks taking over the U.S.
-it resonated with many blacks, call to unit, recognize their heritage, build a sense of community, define their own goals, lead their own organizations & support those organizations


Black Panthers

-new militant political party formed fall of 1966 by activists Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
-wanted blacks to lead their own communities
-demanded that federal government rebuild nation's ghettos to make up for years of neglect
-wanted to combat what they saw as police brutality in the ghettos
-became engaged in direct confrontation with white authorities, although did organize some beneficial community programs, often found themselves in violent encounters with police


Black power gave rise to slogan "Black is beautiful," fostered racial pride, how did it lead to serious split in civil rights movement?

-more radical groups like the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Black Panthers moved away from the NAACP and other moderate organizations


de jure segregation and de facto segregation

-the early civil rights movement focused on battling de jure segregation, racial separation created by law
-changes in the law didn't address the more difficult issue of de facto segregation, separation caused by social conditions such as poverty
-de facto segregation face of life in most American cities, not just in the South


how was de facto segregation a fact of life in cities not even in the South?

-although there were not "whites only" signs above water fountains in the northern cities, discrimination continued in education, housing, employment
-blacks were kept out of well-paying jobs, job-training programs, and suburban housing
-inner-city schools were rundown and poorly equipped


how did residents of ghetto neighborhoods view police officers?

-as dangerous oppressors rather than upholders of justice


what happened because of black's frustration and anger?

-riots and looting
-in 1964, riots ravaged Rochester, New York,; NYC, and several cities in New Jersey


describe one of the most violent riots which occurred in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Watts

-August 11, 1965, police there pulled over a 21-year-old black man for drunk driving
-when the suspect resisted arrest, one police officer panicked and began swinging his riot baton
-the gathered crowd was outraged and the incident started 6 days of rioting
-thousands of people filled the streets, burning cars and stores, stealing merchandise, sniping at firefighters
-at end 34 dead and > thousand injured


National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders

-set up by the federal government and headed by former Illinois Governor Otto Kerner to investigate riots
-1968 the Kerner Commission report declared that the riots were an explosion of anger that had been smoldering in the inner-city ghettos
-declared that "our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white--separate and unequal"


what happened in 1968?

-a series of tragedies hit and U.S. seemed to be coming apart
-against a backdrop of domestic violence, chaos, confrontation, many Americans began to believe that chance of achieving peaceful social change through political activism hopeless


what was the Poor People's Campaign

-in 1968 King turned his attention to economic issues, was convinced that poverty bred violence, broadened his approach to attack economic injustice
-he began planning a Poor People's March on Washington


How did planning a Poor People's March lead to King's assassination?

-he traveled around U.S. to mobilize support for the march
-early April went to Memphis, Tennessee, offering his assistance to striking garbage workers who were seeking better working conditions
-the next day King was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of his motel


what was the national reaction to King's assassination?

-it sparked violent reactions across U.S.
-in an outburst or rage and frustration some blacks rioted, setting, fires and looting stores in > 120 cities, riots and police response left close to 50 people dead
-took > 50,000 troops to quell the violence
-King's death eroded faith in the idea of nonviolent change


what did President Johnson do in order of King?

-he ordered flags on federal building to be flown at half mast to honor King


what had Robert F. Kennedy done since the assassination of his brother?

-come to support the civil rights movement and oppose the Vietnam War
-in the years since the assassination Kennedy had reached out to many Americans including Chicanos, Native American,s African Americans, and poor white families
-he condemned the killing of both Americans and Vietnamese in the Vietnam War
-he criticized the Johnson administration for financing a war instead of funding the programs needed to help the poor and disadvantaged at home
-1968 decided to enter race for Democratic presidential nomination


why did Robert Kennedy decide he had chances in the 1968 Democratic presidential nomination?

-Johnson had lost support from many Democrats because of U.S.'s involvement int eh Vietnam War
-after Senator Eugene McCarthy lost to Johnson in the New Hampshire primary by only a few percentage point Kennedy realized Johnson was vulnerable
-entered the race March 16, got a critical boost when on March 31 Johnson announced he would not run for a second term


what happened during Kennedy's campaign?

-spent the spring of 1968 battling McCarthy in the Democratic primaries, June 4 won key victory in California's primary
-just after midnight after giving his victory speech in an LA hotel, he was shot by an assassin


what was the national reaction to Kennedy's death?

-Kennedy's death ended many people's hopes for an inspirational leader who could heal the nation's wounds


describe the doubts people had about achieving civil rights?

-both black and white American wondered whether real progress in civil rights was possible
-many young activists felt frustrated and discouraged when the movement failed to bring changes quickly
-Lyndon Johnson was devastated by the violence that exploded near the end of his presidency


what changes did the measures passed by Johnson's administration bring about?

-segregation was now illegal
-because of voter registration drives, thousands of blacks could now vote, the power they wielded changed the nature of American political life


describe the changes in black participation in politics

-between 1970 and 1975, the number of black elected officials rose by 88%
-black mayors were elected in Atlanta, Detroit, LA, and Newark
-others served in Congress and state legislatures


Barbara Jordan

-in 1966 Barbara Jordan became the 1st African American elected to the Texas state senate since Reconstruction