Chapter 21 Immune System

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1

First antibody released; potent agglutinating agent; readily fixes and activates complement

IgM

2

found in mucus and other secretions; prevents entry of pathogens

IgA

3

attached to the surface of B bells; functions as a b cell receptor

IgD

4

most abundant antibody found in plasma; crosses the placenta barrier

IgG

5

active in some allergies and parasitic infections; causes mast cells and basophils to release histamine

IgE

6

What do antibodies do to antigens?

inactivate and tag antigens

7

Name the 4 defensive mechanisms used by antibodies

1. neutralization
2. agglutination
3. precipitation
4. complement fixation

8

renders antigen determinants harmless

neutralization

9

once bound to one antigen it has the ability to bind to more than one antigen causing them to clump together

agglutination

10

when clumps of antigens are so large they fall out of suspension

precipitation

11

complement activated and attaches to any cell antibodies are attached to

complement fixation

12

Provide defense against intracellular antigens

T cells

13

CD 4 cells become ____________ when activated

helper T cells

14

CD8 cells become _____________ that destroy cells harboring foreign antigens

cytotoxic cells

15

this type of T cell helps dampen the immune response; helping against autoimmune

regulatory T Cells

16

describe how cytotoxic T cells destroy

perforins are small extensions from T cells that drill small hole into cells and insert granzymes and eat cells from inside out

17

how are immunocompetent T cells activated

when their surface receptors bind to a recognized antigen (nonself)

18

How are T cells activated (2 step process)

1. antigen binding
2. co - stimulation

19

how does antigen binding occur?

antigen presenting cells APCs present the antigen to the TCells activating the T cells

20

once T cells are bound to APCs what is released promoting proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells

cytokins

21

These cells are needed to activate an immune response

helper T cells