Chapter 18 Cardiovasular System: The Heart

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1

The heart is enclosed in the _______________.

Pericardium

2

Define Pericardium

Two layer sac that surrounds the heart

3

Name the two layers of the pericardium

1. Parietal layer
2. Visceral layer

4

Is the visceral layer of the pericardium the internal layer or the outer layer?

inner layer

5

What type of fluid reduces friction on the heart?

serous fluid

6

The inner most layer of the heart is called the _____________.

endocardium

7

The cardiac muscle surrounding the heart is called the ___________.

myocardium

8

The myocardium is made of what type of tissue

cardiac muscle

9

Also known as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium

epicardium

10

The two atria are separated by what two items?

interatrial septum

coronary sulcus

11

what is the purpose of the auricles?

increase atrial volume

12

What are the muscles lining the atria?

pectinate muscles

13

What three vessels inter the right atrium?

superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
coronary sinus

14

What vessels enter the left atrium?

right and left pulmonary veins

15

What are the muscles lining the ventricles?

trabeculae carneae

16

Thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium

angina pectoris

17

prolonged coronary blockage

myocardial infarction

18

Prevent backflow into the atria when the ventricles contract

atrioventricular valves

19

Anchors AV valve cusps to the papillary muscles

chordae tendinae

20

Prevent backflow into the ventricles when the ventricles relax

semilunar valves

21

What ensures the heart contracts as a unit?

Gap Junctions

22

Irregular heart rhythms

arrhythmias

23

rapid, irregular contractions; useless for pumping blood

fibrillation