Anatomy Semester I Block I- Thoracic Wall

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1

what are teh layers of the thoracic wall from superficial to deep

skin
superficial fascia
msucles of upper limb, covered by deep fascia: atatched to bones
intercostal muscles: attached to ribs
endothoracic fascia (areolar CT that lines thoracic wall)
parietal pleura (a thin membrane that lines teh cavities that house the lungs)
thoracic cavity

2

what is the bony architecthre of teh thorax

thoracic vertebrae
ribs
sternum: manubrium, body (sternal angle), xiphoid process

3

what is the sternal angle

junction of manubrium and body forms prominent horizontal ridge that may be easily palpated: costal cartilage of 2nd rib attaches here

4

what are the muscles of the upper limb

pectoralis major
pectoralis minor
serratus anterior

5

how many intercostal spaces are there

11

6

what is the fiber direction of the external intercostals

inferomedially (down and in)

7
card image
card image
8

what is the outermost intercostal muscle layer

external intercostals

9

where are the external intercostals present

everywhere but the front 1/2

10

where is the external intercostal membrane

front 1/2 near sternum

11

what direction do the external intercostals go

inferomedially

" hands in pockets"

12

what takes over where there is no external intercostal muscles

anterior/external intercostal membrane

13

where are the internal intercostals present

sternum to angles

14

what direction do fibers run of the internal intercostals

inferolaterally

15

what is present where there is not internal intercostals

posterior/internal intercostal membrane

16

where are teh innermost intercostals

from sides of body to back

17

where is the transversus thoracis

just in front near the sternum, maybe half of where the external intercostal membrane is

18

what is present where the transversus thoracis and innermost intercostal isn't

common membrane of innermost intercostal and transversus thoracis

19

what direction do the fibers of the innermost intercostals run

inferolaterally

20

what innervates the thoracic wall

anterior rami of T1 to T11, called intercostal nerves

21

where do the main branches of intercostal nerves run

costal groove of rib just below the said rib

22

where do the collateral branches of the intercostal nerves run

just above the rib, no groove

23

what is the order of the intercostal vein, artery, and nerve in teh costal groove

superior to inferior VAN

24

whta are the blood vessels in intercostal spaces called

intercostal vessels
- there are anterior and posterior intercostal vessels

25

where do the main branches of intercostal vessels run

with nerve in costal groove

26

what is the internal thoracic artery a branch of

subclavian artery

27

what are teh branches of the internal thoracic artery

first6 anterior intercostal arteries
musculophrenic artery
superior epigastric artery

28

what is a continuation of the internal thoracic artery

superior epigastric artery

29

what will the musculophrenic artery give off

branches 7-9 of anterior intercostal arteries

30

what large arteries supply the posterior intercostal area

supreme intercostal artery
descending aorta

31

which posterior intercostal arteries are supplied by the supreme intercostal artery

1 and 2

32

which posterior intercostal arteries are supplied by the descending aorta

3-11

33

when removing fluid/pus from thoracic cavity, where would you stick needle: just superior to rib or just inferior?

just superior to avoid intercostal nerve that lies below every rib

34

what is the breast drainage system like

axillary and parasternal lymph nodes

35

what are the axillary lymph nodes

pectoral
subscapular
humeral (lateral)
central
apical

36

what are the main points of interest on the thoracic diaphragm

central tendon
aortic opening
esophageal opening
caval opening

37

where is the aortic opening

T12

38

where is the esophageal opening

T10

39

where is the caval opening

T8

40

what innervates the diaphragm

C3, C4, C5

41

what four structures form the diaphram embryologically

septum transversum
2 pleuroperitoneal membranes (folds)
dorsal mesentery of the esophagus
lateral body walls

42

what is the septum transversum

transverse sheet of mesoderm that separates the pericardial (heart) cavity from the peritoneal cavity

43

what are the pleuroperitoneal membranes/folds

membranes taht are forming as the lungs develop

44

what is the dorsal mesentery of the esophagus

mesentery of peritoneum holding the esophagus in place

45

what are the lateral body walls

muscular components

46

how is the septum transversum originally oriented

lies at C3-C5 somite levels (hence its innervation)

47

why does the dorsal part of the diaphragm migrate from C5 to L1?

due to rapid growth of the dorsal part of the body during weeks 5-7

48

what is a congenital diaphragmatic hernia

result of one of the pleuroperitoneal membranes failing to completely form/fuse with the other diaphragm components, usually on the left side