Chapter 6 Microbio review Flashcards


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1

HIV viruses

only virus with an extra set of chromosome

reverse transcriptase coverts mRNA to DNA

DNA then inserts and hides in cells

virus can stay in the body for years and be undetectable

2

Herpes virus

a virus that also hides itself, is a DNA virus, always in the body, hides in the nerves, will occur due to stress

3

Viruses are not cells; they are ______________

particles; they have nucleic acid which can be DNA/RNA

4

Hepatitis B

A DNA virus that is double-stranded but has fragments of single stranded.

5

How many families are RNA viruses

13

6

Papoviridae/ DNA

- Human Papillomavirus (warts), - Specific viruses grow specific warts., - Human papilloma virus in women can lead to cancer thought

7

Parvoviridae /DNA

very small; single stranded DNA, Parvovirus B-19 erythema infectioum, affects puppies, B-19 can affect children

8

Picornviridae/RNA

poliovirus, rhinovirus; common cold, hepatitis A; short term hepatitis

9

Coronaviridae

SARS virus -covid-19

SARS virus -severe acute respiratory syndrome

-Infectious bronchitis virus

-Enteric coronavirus

10

Allantoic inoculation

influenza, mumps, newcastle disease, avian adenovirus

11

Many years ago information was stored in ____________

RNA

12

Bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

13

someone who specializes in viruses is a

virologist

14

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture; plant virologist

15

Viruses are measured in

nanometers

16

When was the electron microscope discovered?

1928

17

Viruses were discovered when

Louis Pasteur filtered bacteria and the viruses were found in the filtrate

18

Viruses have no color, they appear as

black,white, grey

19

Herpes type 1 is found

on the lips

20

Herpes type 2 is found

on the genitals

21

In bacteriophages the DNA is located in

the head

22

The largest of viruses, look like cells

smallpox

23

The spikes of a virus are made of

glycoprotein; which contains amino acids

24

the receptors of cells allow

the spikes of a virus to fit in perfectly

25

indication of viruses in the past

- polio

-Hector, from the Iliad, had rabies

26

The properties of viruses are

-obligate intracellular parasite of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algae, plants and animals, they live around the cell

- Ultramicroscopic, ranging from 20nm to 450nm

-not cellular in nature, structure is very compact and economical

27

There are about an estimated _________ types of viruses

400,000

28

There are about __________ described viruses

5,000

29

There are __________________ accepted viruses

2,000

30

The head of a virus is shaped as

icosehedron ( made of 20 equilateral triangles)

-protects nucleic acid

31

Viruses can have ______ and ______ but they are NEVER TOGETHER

DNA, RNA

32

Potyvirus

affects citrus

33

The sum of all genetic information carried by an organism is a

genome

34

Viruses are classified by

structure, chemical composition, and genetic makeup

35

ICTV

International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

36

How many orders of viruses are there

3 orders

37

How many families of viruses are there

63 families called viridae ex. coronoviridae

38

how many genera of viruses are there

263 genera called viruses, ex. coronavirus

39

Viruses are called _____________ not species

types

40

How many families are DNA viruses

6

41

Herpesviridae /DNA

HSV type 1, HSV type 2, Epstein Barr (EBV) or mono, Varicella Zoster (VZR), rash or chicken pox

42

Poxviridae / DNA

smallpox, cowpox, large viruses

43

Adenoviridae / DNA

Adenovirus infections - affects adenoids (tonsils)

44

Hepadnaviridae /DNA

Hepatitis B, affects and destroys the liver, DNA DOUBLE AND SINGLE STRANDED, is sexually transmitted

45

Calicivirus/RNA

norwalk virus or norovirus, causes stomach aches and diarrhea

46

Togaviridae/RNA

Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, rubella virus *women would expose to this prior to getting married and having kids

47

Flaviviridae/ RNA

*the most common and recent, come from mosquito except HEP C

- Dengue fever virus -in the tropics, from mosquito

-West Nile virus - mosquito

- Yellow fever virus

-Hep C virus -occurs through blood transfusion, or sharing needles, can end with cancer

-St. Louis encephalitis

48

Bunyaviridae/ RNA

Crimean Congo virus- hemorrhagic virus, turns you purple/black, dies in 3 days

49

Filoviridae/RNA

-ebola virus- localized in africa

-marburg virus- type of ebola fever that origniated in marburg, germany from a lab, 12 people died

-look like filaments

50

Reoviridae/RNA

Rotavirus - gastroenteritis, looks like a wheel, RNA IS DOUBLE STRANDED

51

Orthomyxoviridae/RNA

infuenza virus - killer- no medicine to control, only vaccines

52

Paramyxoviridae/RNA

mumps, measles, parainfluenza, RSV ;common cold

53

Rhabdoviridae/RNA

Lyssavirus (rabies)

54

Retroviridae/RNA

Centivirus- HIV 1 and 2, cause AIDS

Human T-cell leukemia virus

55

T Helper Cell

helps in the production of antibodies

56

Arenaviridae/RNA

looks like grain of arena

-steals ribosome from host

lassavirus-lassa fever, spread by rats

57

Cells can have ___________ receptors

many

58

Adsorption

The process of binding or sticking to a surface, binds to receptors

59

penetration

allows particle to enter

60

Uncoating

the envelope of the virus is removed, and the RNA is freed into the cytoplasm

61

Synthesis

replication and protein production

62

Assembly

Viral spike proteins are inserted into the cell membrane for the viral envelope; nucleocapsid is formed from RNA and capsomers

63

ALL RNA VIRUSES REPLICATE IN

THE CYTOPLASM

64

ALL DNA VIRUSES REPLICATE

IN THE NUCLEUS , turns into mRNA and replicates

65

Methylated

can not express any protein

66

when a cell senses danger

it commits apoptosis, however viruses block the cells ability to kill them self

67

lytic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which copies of a virus are made within a host cell, which then bursts open, releasing new viruses (multiplys immediately)

68

lysogenic cycle

a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA (can multiply in a span up to 15 years)

69

a prophage

A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome.

70

viruses can be deteced via

pcr

71

aminotic inoculation

influenza, mumps

72

yolk sac

herpes simplex virus