Percentages can also be expressed as a decimal by
by moving the decimal point two places to the left of the written number to indicate hundredths.
Two scales commonly used to measure temperature
Fahrenheit scale and Celsius scale
the freezing point of water
32 F/ 0 C
the boiling point of water
212 f/ 100 C
normal body temperature,
The metric system, also referred to
as the International System of Units, is based on powers or multiples of 10,
The metric system is
the primary system of measurement used in the health care field
The measurements in the metric system are based on the following units of measure:
- Length: meter (m)
- Weight: gram (g)
- Meter = m
- Centimeter = cm
- Millimeter = mm
- Kilogram = Kg or kg
- Gram = g
- Milligram = mg
- Microgram = mcg
- Kiloliter = kl
- Liter = l
- Cubic centimeter = cc
- Milliliter = mL or ml
the apothecary system
Pharmacists sometimes use
The following abbreviations are for the household measurement system.
- ength Yard = yd
- Foot = ft
- Inch = in.
- Teaspoon = t or tsp; 3 tsp = 1 Tbsp
- Tablespoon = T, tbsp., or Tbsp
- Ounce = oz; 8 oz = 1 cup
- Pint = pt; 2 cups = 1 pt
- Quart = qt; 2 pints = 1 qt
- Gallon = gal; 4 quarts = 1 gal
- Pound = lb
The apothecary system is based
the weight of a grain of wheat. In this system, 12 ounces (rather than the more commonly known 16 ounces) equals one pound
The following are the abbreviations for the apothecary system.
- Minim = m
- Dram = dr
- Drop = gtt
- Ounce = oz
- Pint = pt
- Grain = gr
- Pound = lb
There are six basic “rights” for correct medication handling,
The “right” patient the “right” drug the “right” dose the “right” route of administration the “right” time and frequency the “right” documentation, including labeling.
The surgical technologist and circulator are responsible
or preparing and recording the name, amount, and delivery method used for every medication managed within the sterile field and administered to the patient
Medications used in the OR are available from the manufacturer in many types of packaging, including
lass, plastic, and metal containers.
Glass container that requires the top to be broken off to access the contents—usually contains liquid medication.
Plastic or glass container that has a rubber stopper at the top that is held in place with a metal retaining ring—may contain liquid, powder, or compressed powder
Usually contains liquid medication.
No matter the type of packaging used, the manufacturer must label all drugs, and the label must contain the following information:
Drug name (trade and generic) Manufacturer Strength Amount Expiration date Route of administration Lot number Handling/storage precautions and warnings Instructions for reconstitution (if applicable) Controlled substances classification (if applicable)
Note that the medication name, strength, amount, and expiration date should be verified a
minimum of three times prior to administration.