UNIT 2!!! part 2 Flashcards


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1

addiction pathway

psychologically dependent, physically dependent, tolerant, addicted

2

psychologically dependent

brain wants more pleasure, more pleasure receptors are formed, faster spatial summation in synapses

3

physically dependent

brain wants to avoid withdrawal

4

tolerant

receptor down-regulation, temporal summation is needed to get desired drug response

5

addiction

person is continuously preoccupied with getting the drug

6

branches of the autonomic nervous system

SNS and PSNS

7

norepinephrine

similar to adrenalin hormone

8

norepinephrine receptor

adrenergic receptor

9

cluster of neurons

ganglion

10

pathway for SNS

spinal cord, short axon, sympathetic ganglion, long axon, innervation of organ

11

pathway for PSNS

brain stem/medulla, long axon, terminal ganglion, short axon, innervation of organ

12

SNS physical effects

increased heart and respiratory rate, decreased digestion, pupil dilation

13

PSNS physical effects

decreased heart and respiratory rate, increased digestion, pupil constriction

14

"rest and digest"

PSNS

15

"fight or flight"

SNS

16

reaction if a medication stimulates the SNS

PSNS is decreased

17

reaction if a medication stimulates the PSNS

SNS is decreased

18

what amphetamines resemble and stimulate

norepinephrine, stimulate SNS

19

why meth addicts have bad teeth

no salivation because of constant suppression of PSNS

20

5 primary receptor classes

adrenergic, cholinergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, μ opioid receptors

21

adrenergic receptors primary effect

SNS stimulation

22

cholinergic receptors primary effect

PSNS stimulation

23

GABAergic receptors primary effect

inhibition

24

dopaminergic receptors primary effect

pleasure

25

μ opioid receptors primary effect

pain reduction

26

fluid right behind cornea

aqueous humor

27

fluid behind lens

vitreous humor

28

where stem cells for cornea are located

limbus

29

smooth muscle in the eye location

ciliary body

30

what receives the light that enters the eye (general)

retina

31

how often aqueous rumor is completely replaced

every 90 minutes

32

what happens if aqueous humor is not drained fast enough

glaucoma

33

why glaucoma is treated with a cholinergic agonist

causes pupil constriction, allowing more opening for canal of Schlemm

34

be able to label an eye and describe pathway of light

location of sclera, choroid, retina, humors, lens, ciliary body, iris limbus, cornea

35

type of connective tissue behind the cornea

dense CT

36

protein in vitreous solution

crystallin

37

location of stem cells for lens

anterior surface, base is cuboidal

38

cause of cataracts

precipitation of crystallins

39

types of photoreceptor cells

rods and cones

40

rods

black and white sight

41

cones

color sight, red, blue, and green

42

synapses in retina

ganglion axons, bipolar cell, photoreceptor cell

43

pathway in presence of light

rhodopsin activates cGMP phosphodiesterase, splits cGMP, Na+ channels close, no depolarization, no action potential, bipolar cell is free to depolarize and send action potential

44

what absorbs light in photoreceptors

rhodopsin

45

be able to explain the difference between action potentials in the presence or absence of light

absence causes photoreceptor to prevent bipolar cell from depolarizing, presence allows bipolar cell to depolarize