H. 430: Exam #1 Flashcards


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1

What needs to bind to troponin in order for actin binding sites to open, allowing myosin to bind?

calcium

2

(T/F) Myosin-heavy chains I is associated with slow twitch muscle fibers

True

3

(T/F) The motor neuron of type II motor units is smaller than the motor neuron of type I motor units

False

4

Type IIx fibers are recruited before type I fibers based on the principle of orderly recruitment

False

5

Type II fibers have more enhanced calcium release due to a more highly developed sacroplasmic reticulum

True

6

Resting membrane potential of a neural cell is __ mV.

-70

7

The motor neuron innervates the muscle at the __.

neuromuscular junction

8

What are muscle fibers part of?

Motor Unit

9

(T/F) Muscle fibers are all the same

True

10

EPSP

depolarization // acetylcholine

11

IPSP

hyperpolarization // serotonin + Gabba

12

(T/F) The enzyme ATPase is located in the myosin-heavy chain and helps break down ATP into ADP and a phosphate group

True

13

Type IIa muscle fibers have greater endurance capabilities than type IIx muscle fibers

True

14

When performing concentric contraction there is a visible lengthening of the muscle

False

15

Type I

Neural aspects: small (neuron size), <300 (unit size), slow (conduction)

Contractile Aspects: Slow (ATPase), Low ( SR dev. + force), 110ms (shorten velocity)

Energetics: High (oxidative ability+endurance), Low (glycolytic ability)

16

Type IIa

Neural aspects: Large(neuron size), >300 (unit size), Fast (conduction)

Contractile Aspects: Fast (ATPase), High ( SR dev. + force), 50ms (shorten velocity)

Energetics: Moderately High (oxidative ability+endurance), High (glycolytic ability)

17

Type IIx

Neural aspects: Large(neuron size), >300 (unit size), Fast (conduction)

Contractile Aspects: Fast (ATPase), High ( SR dev. + force), 50ms (shorten velocity)

Energetics: Low (oxidative ability+endurance), High (glycolytic ability)

18

(T/F) Simple diffusion does not require energy and does not involve a transport protein

True

19

Where is the intracellular fluid located

Inside the cells

20

(T/F) In transcription, RNA is used to form new proteins

false

21

(T/F) If more hydrogen ions are added to a neutral solution the pH decreases and become more acidic

True

22

(T/F) ATP is the usable form of energy in the body

True

23

The extracellular fluid is made up of __ and __

Plasma and interstitial fluid

24

The following reaction is an example of __.

ADP+Pi ---> ATP

Synthesis

25

Characteristics of the nucleus structure includes __

All of the above (double-membrane. pores, loosely arranged DNA and other proteins)

26

(T/F) An isotonic solution refers to two solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membrane

True

27

Osmosis is a form of passive transport

True

28

Cori cycle

- no oxygen / Kreb cycle backup

- 2 pyruvate => 2 lactate

29

Rate Limiting enzyme (Glycolysis)

PFK

30

Rate Limiting Enzyme (Krebs Cycle)

Isocitrate Dehydrogenase

31

Glucose

32 ATP

32

Glycogen

- 33 ATP

- stored form of carbs in muscle + liver

33

Muscle Force Production factors

  • summation
  • tightness
  • motor unit size
  • UP velocity = LOW force relationship
  • tendon stiffness (up stiff = up force)

34

How to find how fast/heavy fibers are (fiber type)

  • staining fibers
  • SDS-Page (weight of fiber + travel speed)

35

muscle spindle reflex

length detectors // knee jerk reflex (tap on patellar tendon => kicking mvt of lower leg)

36

golgi tendon reflex

force detectors // lifting weights (body detect how much tension + force to produce)

37

ATP-PCr pathway

  • anaerobic
  • 1 ATP produced
  • rate: 1 mol ATP produced / 1 mol PCr

38

Glycolysis

  • glucose = 2 net ATP
  • glycogen = 3 net ATP
  • BOTH = 5 net ATP
  • Final product= lactate (with O2) or Lactate (no O2)

39

krebs cycle

  • aerobic
  • 2 turns = 2 ATP
  • net NADH= 2 turns = 3 NADH

40

How membrane potential maintained?

Uneven ion separation

  • High [Na+][Cl-] on outside
  • High [K+] on inside