Chapter 18 and 19 science Flashcards


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1

What are waters 6 changes of state?

Condensation, Evaporation, Deposition, Melting, Freezing, Sublimation

2

What form of energy do these processes use?

Latent heat

3

What is humidity and what does it have to do with saturation?

Humidity is the amount of water in the air in the form of water vapor, the more saturated the air is the more humid it is.

4

What is relative humidity?

Ratio of how much water vapor is in the air to how much it can hold.

5

What causes an increase or decrease in relative humidity?

Temperature increase or decrease.

6

What is the dew point?

The temperature a section of air needs to be cooled to reach saturation.

7

What is a hygrometer?

A device used to measure relative humidity.

8

How are psychrometers different from hygrometers?

They have a wet and a dry bulb

9

When the temperature of the air rises, what happens to the amount of water needed for saturation?

Less water is needed.

10

What happens to air as it expands?

It cools.

11

What happens to air as it compresses?

It warms up.

12

What is orographic lifting?

Mountains blocking air flow and forcing the air up.

13

What is frontal wedging?

Warm, less dense air being forced up and over cooler denser air.

14

What is convergence?

Where 2 fronts meet and are forced up when they hit.

15

What is the difference between stable air and unstable air?

Stable air- little to no temperature change

Unstable air- more changes in temperature causing storms or clouds to form.

16

What must happen for condensation to occur?

Air must be at 100% humidity.

17

What are condensation nuclei?

Particles where water vapor can condense into. (dust, pollen, smoke, pollution)

18

What is fog defined as?

A cloud at the ground.

19

What are the two processes which can causes fog to occur?

Cooling and evaporation.

20

What is air pressure?

Pressure given by the weight of air above.

21

What is a barometer?

Device used to measure air pressure.

22

What happens to a barometer when the air pressure increases?

Mercury tube rises.

23

What is the ultimate source of wind?

Temperature differences/pressure differences.

24

What is wind? How does it flow in terms of pressures?

The wind is the atmosphere trying to balance itself out, wind always goes from high to low pressure.

25

Name and describe the three factors of wind.

Differences in air pressure, friction, the Coriolis effect.

26

Due to the Coriolis effect, what way does wind go in the northern hemisphere?

To the right

27

What does the Coriolis effect influence?

Wind, water, any free moving object.

28

What do isobars which are close together mean?

High gradient, winds will be stronger.

29

In what direction do low-pressure systems blow in the northern hemisphere?

To the left/counterclockwise.

30

What pressure system is a cyclone associated with?

Low pressure system.

31

What pressure system is an anticyclone associated with?

High pressure system.

32

What air pressure system is associated with sinking air?

High pressure.

33

What global winds does the US have?

Westerlies

34

What is a monsoon?

Seasonal changes in the wind.

35

What causes a monsoon?

Changes in low and high pressure systems/ seasonal changes.

36

What are the changes happening for water forms during...

Condensation

Evaporation

Condensation- Gas to liquid

Evaporation- Liquid to gas

37

What are the changes happening for water forms during...

Sublimation

Deposition

Sublimation- Solid straight to gas.

Deposition- Gas straight to solid