2/2 and 2/7 Flashcards


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1

Gene segments

relatively short DNA sequences, multiple variable copies

2

where gene segments are seen

Ig and TCR genes

3

somatic reconstruction

form unique V regions, constructed from gene segments

4

diversity from combinations of gene segments

2.1 million combos before Ag

5

RSS (recombination signal sequence)

ensures segments are added in the correct order

6

how RSS functions

directs somatic recombination, serve as recognition sites for enzymes

7

RAG1/RAG2

only expressed in lymphocytes, cut DNA into blunt ends

8

what is done to signal joint

degraded bc it has no function

9

what is done to coding joint

maintained in the genome

10

junctional diversity

hairpin is opened up, TdT randomly adds n-nucleotides (not germline encoded), increasing diversity

11

which type of cell adds more diversity after antigen encounter

B cells, not T cells

12

BCR

receptor for antigen, can be secreted (antibody)

13

when B cell receptors are embedded in the membrane

only in early stages

14

antibody repertoire

all the specific antibodies a person makes

15

where antibodies are located

blood plasma, lymph, mucosal sites

16

where variable region of antibody is

amino terminal region, forms basis of diversity of antigen recognition

17

constant region

less diversity, limited variation, gives different isotypes

18

Fab

binds to antigen

19

Fc

no antigen binding

20

ways to determine structure of Ab

papain digestion and pepsin digestion

21

isotypes

differences in constant region, different effector functions

22

effector function

complement activation and neutralization

23

antibody isotopes, in order found in the genome

IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE, IgA

24

what makes IgA and IgM unique

they form compounds together - dimer and pentamer

25

where IgA dimer is secreted

mucosal surfaces

26

where IgM pentamer is secreted

serum

27

J chain

polypeptide chain linked by disulfide bonds, associated with multimers

28

antigen-binding site

heavy chain + light chain (VH+VL)

29

hinge on antigen binding sites

allow arms to have more free movement

30

Beta sandwich

how light chain C and V domains are held together

31

Hypervariable regions (HV)

most variable part of the variable region

32

Framework regions (FR)

tend to be invariant amino acid sequences, provide scaffolding for HV

33

CDR

also known as HV, complementary determining region

34

multivalent Ag

multiple areas where Abs can bind called epitopes

35

epitopes

regions actually bound by antibodies

36

two kinds of multivalent antigen

ones with different epitopes and ones with a repeated epitope

37

linear epitope

contains several successive amino acids

38

discontinuous epitope

formed by 1 or more parts of the protein antigen, separated by an amino acid sequence

39

affinity

binding strength of an antibody

40

does the cytoplasmic tail of the TCR have signaling?

no