Plants Flashcards


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created 1 year ago by taniaharper
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1

Salicylates come from what tree?

Salicin tree bark

2

Effects of cyanogens

cardiovascular collapse, coma, metabolic acidosis, dilated pupils

3

Antidote of cyanogens

hydroxocobalamin

4

Pyrethrins are pesticides found naturally in

chrysanthemum flowers

5

MOA of pyrethrins

  • delay the closure of voltage-gated sodium ion channels in the nerve cells of insects, resulting in repeated and extended nerve firings
  • this hyperexcitation causes the death of the insect due to loss of motor coordination and paralysis

6

Cardiac glycosides (digoxin)

are a class of medications commonly derived from foxglove plants, such as Digitalis purpurea

7

Effects from cardiac glycosides

PVCs, bradycardia, SVT, AV blocks, ventricular tachycardia, elevated K+

8

Treatment for cardiac glycosides toxicity

Digibind

9

Two hikers in GA picked what they thought was a wild onion but instead ingested

veratrum species (family of Lily)

10

Substance that is poisonous in veratrum species

Veratridine

11

Effects of Veratridine

GI effects, stimulate vagal fibers (hypotension, bradycardia), increases permeability of voltage-sensitive fast channels in myocytes (muscular cramps and weakness)

12

Cyclopamine comes from

veratrum plant

13

MOA of cyclopamine

inhibits the hedgehog signaling pathway, prevents brain from dividing into two lobes (holoprosencephaly) and cause development of a single eye (cyclopia)

**teratogen**

14

What chemical comes from grayanotoxin

Diterpene- a polyhydroxylated cyclic hydrocarbon

15

MOA of grayanotoxin

binds to myocardial Na+ channels, prevents inactivation leaving excitable cells depolarized

16

Effects of grayanotoxin

cholinergic and cardiovascular, mild intoxication (N/V, weakness, dizziness), severe intoxication (coma, seizures,bradycardia, etc)

17

Sweet clover has what agent in it

Coumarin

18

Antidote for Warfarin

Vitamin K

19

Ricin comes from

castor bean

(bulgarian defector died from this)

20

Lethal dose of Ricin

22 mcg/kg

21

Green potato comes from what plant

solanine plants

22

Large exposures of solanine plants people can develop

delirium and coma

(GI effects 2 to 24 hours after ingestion)

23

Water hemlock contains

cicutoxin

24

Poison hemlock contains

conium maculatum

(main toxic alkaloids: coniine, gamma-coniceine)

25

Poison hemlock has similar effects to

nicotine toxicity (biphasic effects- a drug's low and high doses cause opposite effects)

26

Aconitum napellus contains

aconitine (1 gram of plant is lethal, 6 mg of aconitine is lethal)

27

Aconitine is used in

herbal medicine and CTM for anxiety, colds and chronic pain

28

Effects of aconitine

rapid onset, increases sodium entry, neurologic and cardiac effects

29

What plant has LSD in its seeds?

Morning glory

30

Which spice has the hallucinogen myristicine?

Nutmeg

31

What plants have calcium oxalate in it

elephant ear and philodendron

(has bad GI effects- intestinal irritants)

32

What drugs come from belladonna alkaloids

atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine

33

Where does Atropine come from?

Atropa belladonna