Chapters 5,6,7 Flashcards


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Integumentary system, skeletal system, and muscular system
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medical terminology
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1

Xanth/o

yellow

2

Melan/o

brown or black

3

Leuk/o

white

4

Erythro/o

red

5

Cyan/o

blue

6

Albin/o

white

7

Corticosteroids

steroid hormones that treat skin inflammation

8

Antipramritics

Treat itching

9

Antifungals

destroy fungi that cause infections

10

antibiotics

destroy bacteria that cause infections

11

cryosurgery

surgery that uses cold temperatures to destroy unwanted tissue

12

Dermabrasion

removal of acne scars, nevi, tattoos and wrinkles through use if abrasive material on epidermal layer

13

Xenograft

between different species

14

Autograpft

same person, site to site

15

Allograft

person to person

16

Biopsy

excision of a piece of tissue from a body site for microscopic examination

17

Debridement

removal of foreign material and dead tissue to promote healing/prevent infection

18

Scabies

contagious parasitic skin infection resulting from mite infetation

19

Dermatologist

a specialist that studies skin

20

Dermatology

diagnosis and treatment of diseases involving the skin and relationship of skin lessons to systematic systems

21

Integumentary System

skin, accessory organs: hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands

22

Skin Function

Protects body from external environment, injury, infection, dehydration, uv rays, toxic compunds, maintain homeostasis

23

Basal Layer

pertaining the base

24

Epidermis

above the skin

25

-phoresis

carrying or transmission

26

-oid

resembling

27

py/o

puss

28

necr/o

death

29

Scler/o

hardening

30

Aden/o

gland

31

Squam/o

flat

32

seb/o

sebum

33

xer/o

dry

34

pil/o, trich/o

hair

35

myc/o

fungus

36

kerat/o

hard, horny tissue

37

onych/o

nail

38

ichthy/o

dry, scaly

39

sudar/o

sweat

40

hidro/o

sweat

41

dermat/o, derm/o

skin

42

cutane/o

skin

43

adip/o, lip/o

fat

44

basal cell carcinoma

malignacy of basal layer

commonly caused by repeated sunburn

local tumor: slow growing, often alcerate

most common in fair skinned older men

45

basal cell carcinoma treatment

irrigation, curettage and electodessication, cryotherapy, chemotherapy, surgical excision

46

abscess

localized collection of pus at infection site

47

carbuncle

a cluster of furuncle in subcutaneous tissue

48

furuncle (boil)

an abscess in hair follicle

49

abscess symptoms

tenderness, pain, swelling

may open to discharge pus

mild fever

50

abscess treatment

clean area with soap and water

apply hot wet compress

topical antibiotics

incise and drain

51

scabies

contagious parasitic skin infection from mite infestation

52

scabies symptoms

intense pruritus and sensation of something crawling on skin

rash

53

scabies treatment

topical scabicide

antipruritics

oral antihistamines

54

comedones

clogged hair follicles

55

Cervical disk herniation

paraesthesia and restricted mobility of the neck

56

herniated disk

herniation of the nucleus pulosus between two vertebrae (aka prolapsed disk)

57

Herniated disk symptoms

sever back pain that worsens with movement, coughing, sneezing

58

fracture treatment

none, immobilization, realignment, pain control, muscle relaxer, bandaging, taping

59

greenstick fractures

young bones twist and bend

60

incomplete fractures

doesn't go all the way through the bone

61

impacted fractures

two pieces of bone crush together

62

comminuted fractures

broken into smaller pieces (crushed)

63

complicated Fractures

Bones pieces another organ

64

open (compound) fractures

piercing through the skin

65

closed (simple) fractures

stays within the skin

66

fracture symptoms

pain, swelling, bruising, deformity at site of fracture

loss if movement, function, muscle spasm, hemorrhage, shock

67

fractures

injury or break of bone

68

long bones

diaphysis (shaft)

distal and proximal epiphysis(ends)

femur, humerus, radius

69

flat bone

brood, flat plates: extensive protection

frontal, parietal, sternum

70

irregular bones

peculiarly shaped

vertebrae, many cranial bones, hyoid

71

short bones

as long as wide

carpal, patellae, tarsals

72

four types of bones

short, irregular, flat, long

73

-porosis

porous

74

-physis

growth

75

-clast

to break

76

arthr/o

joint

77

orth/o

straight

78

chondr/o

cartilage

79

ankyl/o

stiffness or bent

80

stern/o

sternum

81

spondyl/o, verebr/o

vertabra

82

phalang/o

phalanges

83

metacarp/o

metacarpal bones

84

humer/o

humerus

85

cost/o

ribs

86

carp/o

wrist

87

skeleton function

support and protect

attachment for muscle

calcium and mineral storage

produce blood cells (bone marrow)

88

appendicular skeleton

limbs

89

axial skeleton

skull, rib cage, vertebral column

90

chiropractic

system based on the belief that disease is caused by pressure on nerves

91

osteopathy

disease of the bone

92

orthopedics

prevention, diagnosis, treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

93

bunion

lateral deviation at the big toe as it turns towards the second toe, causing swelling and tenderness

94

rheumatoid arthritis

chronic, systemic, inflammatory disease affecting synovial membranes of joints, resulting in deformity

95

osteomyelitis treatment

extensive, long-term antibiotic

surgical drainage to remove pus and necrotic bone tissue

tissue and bone grafts may be necessary to restore blood flow

96

osteomyelitis

inflammation at the bone marrow

as infection progresses may develop abscess

97

osteomyelitis symptoms

inflammation, swelling, localized heat and tenderness, redness, pain (at and around the bone)

chills, fever, sweating

98

herniated disk treatment

spinal fusion, bed rest, alternating heat and cold application, muscle relaxants, salicylate, analgesics, traction of lower extremities, back brace, laminectomy

99

hemiplegia

paralysis of half the body

100

quadriplegia

paralysis of four limbs

101

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower body

102

paresis

partial paralysis or weakness

103

paralysis

inability to move

104

muscular dystrophy

a diverse group of muscle disease caused by genetic mutations

can be hereditary or not

105

rhabdomyolysis treatment

support kidney function with rigorous rehydration

maintain breathing and circulation

106

rhabdomyolysis symptoms

myalgia: muscle pain, weakness, myoglobinuria (tea-colored urine)

107

rhabdomyolysis

damages muscle tissue releases myoglobin into the bloodstream and its breakdown damages the kidneys

causes can be anything that damages skeletal muscles

108

carpal tunnel syndrome

pain or numbness from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel

109

gonimeter

a tool that measures range of motion

110

electromyography (EMG)

diagnoses muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and other muscle conditions

111

strain

trauma to muscle from overuse or excessive forcible stretch

112

sprain

trauma to joint that causes injury to surrounding ligaments

113

tendons

bind muscle to bone

114

ligaments

bond bone to bone

115

plantarflexion

flexing plantar (bottom) of foot

116

dorsiflexion

turn your toes up

117

inversion

turn the sole of the foot inward

118

eversion

turn the sole of the foot out

119

supination

to turn palms up

120

pronation

to turn palms down

121

rotation

move around on axis

122

abduction

further from the midline

123

adduction

to move closer to the midline

124

extension

increases a joint angle

125

flexion

decrease a joint angle

126

action

flexors, adductors, extensors

127

shape

deltoid is triangular, trapezius is trapesoidal

128

size

Maximus, minimus

129

divisions

biceps, triceps, quadriceps

130

muscle function

movement, pass and eliminate food, propel blood, eliminate urine

131

cardiac

found in the heart, involuntary

132

smooth

found lining hollow organs, involuntary

133

skeletal

usually connect bones, voluntary

134

three types of muscles

skeletal, smooth, cardiac

all are excitable

135

-paresis

weakness

136

-plegia

paralysis

137

dys-

difficult or bad

138

brady-

slow

139

-kinesia

movement

140

scler/o

hardening

141

ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o

tendon

142

my/o

muscle

143

fibr/o

fiber

144

fasci/o

fascia (connective tissue)

145

massage therapist

manipulation through touch to relieve pain, reduce stress, promote healing

146

orthopedics

prevention, diagnosis, treatment of musculoskeletal disorders