Amoeba lecture 1 Flashcards


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1

things to know about the 6 parasites

  • life cycles starting w/ infected stage
  • organelles present + their function
  • metabolic pathways + how diff from humans for glycolysis, nucleic acids, lipids
  • how produce energy
  • invasion mechanisms into host
  • zoonotic or not
  • diagnosis

2

intestinal amebiasis - entamoeba histolytica

...

3

life cycle

card image
  • lot of pathology
    • infected stage - cyst
    • accidentally eaten (fecal contaminated food/water)
    • -> go to intestine + live there (most ppl)
    • invade large intestine (some ppl) + cause serious problems
    • can spread to others if live in lumen
      • intestine -> gut -> hepatic blood vein into liver -> live in liver + form lesions (cause swelling in large intestine)
  • if dont resolve this, can kill person
  • can cross diaphram -> lungs -> brain
    can go into penis via sexual relations + dissolve it

1st cyst has 1 nucleus -> mature cyst has 4 nuclei

diagnose - take feces + put smear on slide + stain it (see cysts)

4

pathogenic vs nonpathogenic

  • Entamoeba histolytica – Pathogenic
  • Entamoeba dispar – Nonpathogenic
    • identical looking to histolytica
    • not pathogenic
    • must do rapid diagnostic test to tell them apart
  • Ent = Enteric
  • Histo = Tissue
  • Lytica = Lysis
  • There are 6 other amoebasb that live in the intestine of humans which are non- pathogenic – some of you probably are infected w/ one

5

person killed self by experimenting w/ Entamoeba histolytica

  • Fritz Schadinn (?)
  • got pathogenic strain and it killed him
  • did not identify liver stage in malaria, misled world for 30 years

6

general information

  • Infective Stage = Cyst
  • Pathology Stage = Trophozoite
  • Transmission = Fecal contaminated food & water, anal-oral sex
  • Location = Large intestine, liver, CNS & skin
    • primarily large intestine
    • in some ppl, penetrate intestine -> blood -> liver -> CNS

7

trophozoite

card image

eat RBC and eat bacteria

8

...

card image

show development of cysts

red = ribosomes

light blue = glycogen vacuum

only 4 nuclei at final stage

9

organelles present

  • nucleus
  • food vacuoles w/ host RBCs
  • microtubules
  • unique
    • mitosome (similar to mitochondria)
    • chromatoid bars (like ribosomes)

10

mitosome

  • related to mitochondria
  • double membrane
  • G3PD enzyme
  • no cristae
  • no DNA
  • no ATP formed
  • formation of Fe-sulfur (used in diff metabolic pathways)

11

nucleus

  • no visible chromosomes at light microscope but present at EM level
  • no DNA histones
  • endosome = condensed DNA
  • peripheral chromatin = nucleolus like
  • nuclear membrane remains intact during nuclear division

12

microtubules and chromosomes

card image

13

organelles missing

  • mitochondria
  • ER
  • golgi

14

nucleic acid metabolism

  • de novo synthesis of purines
  • de novo synthesis of pyrimidines
  • relies on salvage pathways

15

lipid metabolism

  • no de novo synthesis of lipids
  • has ceramide aminoethyl PO4 that is uncommon in phospholipid
  • has more ethanolamine than choline
  • reason for diff lipids = unusual plasticity + stability of troph
  • lipids help stabilize trophozoite

16

electron transport system components + function

  • no ATP made by electron transport chain
  • no cytochromes (heme iron products)
  • has ferredoxins (iron sulfur proteins)
  • has flavins (FAD)
  • has coenzyme Q
  • e- transport takes place in cytoplasm
  • dont make any ATP with ETC

17

energy production (ATP)

  • glycolysis (substrate lvl phos)
    • how make energy/ATP
  • NOT from ETC
  • NO TCA cycle

18

phagocytosis of bacteria, host tissue + RBC's by trophozoite stage

card image

ingest RBC

19

TEST Q

card image
  • 6 differences in glycolysis from normal euk cell
    • use inorganic pyrophosphate (we dont have)
    • use GTP/GDP instead of ATP
    • have side branching off (lower left) that we dont have (pyruvate to malate/OAA)
    • acetyl CoA can make alcohol or acetate
  • both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism going on

20

antioxidants

  • NO glutathione
  • NO catalase
  • has SOD (superoxide dismutase)

21

oxygen detoxification systems

  • flavoprotein A - detoxify nitric acid and or oxygen
  • rubreiythrin - protects against peroxide
  • these = diff from most cells
  • important for parasite

22

oxygen and nitrogen radicals

card image
  • reaction of antioxidants
    • broken down by SOD
    • = parasite can get rid of free radicals that would damage them by having some antioxidants

23

gut view cross sectional

card image
  • pink - gut tissue
  • inside = mucus- keep things away from gut cells
    • keep parasites and pathogens away
  • parasite can break down mucus w/ diff enzymes + go into tissue area + produce more enzymes to break through + go into tissue (very pathogenic)
    • can have so much tissue damage -> break thru gut -> rupture -> bacteria + parasites leave gut -> peroneal cavity = can kill
  • neutrophils - kill many parasites
    • can be bad bc overreact -> body produce too many neutrophils = can destroy normal tissue

24

ulcer in gut

card image

ulcer spreads laterally in the gut

25

diagnosis

  • rapid diagnostic test (fecal antigens)
  • staining fecal smear looking for cysts in normal formed feces or trophozoites in liquid fecal sample

26

TO KNOW WELL FOR HISTOLYTICA

  • life cycles starting w/ infected stage
    • infective stage - cyst
      • eaten (fecal contaminated food/water)
      • -> go to intestine + live there (most ppl)
      • invade large intestine (some ppl) + cause serious problems
      • can spread to others if live in lumen
        • intestine -> gut -> hepatic blood vein into liver -> live in liver
        • form lesions (cause swelling in large intestine)
        • if dont resolve this, can kill person
      • can cross diaphram -> lungs -> brain
    • can go into penis via sexual relations + dissolve it
    • life cycle
      • mature cyst - ingested
      • excystation
      • trophozoite - multiply into
        • more trophozoites
        • cysts
          • 1st cyst has 1 nucleus -> mature cyst has 4 nuclei
      • cyst exits host (passed in feces)
  • organelles present + their function
    • missing
      • mitochondria
      • ER
      • golgi
    • present
      • nucleus
      • food vacuoles w/ host RBC
      • mitosome
        • like mitochondria
        • use Fe sulfur
        • no DNA, cristae, ATP made
      • chromatoid bars - ribosomes in cysts
      • microtubules
  • metabolic pathways + how diff from humans for glycolysis, nucleic acids, lipids
    • do glycolysis
      • use inorganic pyrophosphate (we dont have)
      • use GTP/GDP instead of ATP
      • branch off pyruvate <-> malate <-> OAA <-> PEP
      • acetyl-CoA - can make alcohol or acetate
    • both aerobic / anaerobic metabolism
    • lipid metabolism - no de novo synthesis
      • ceramide aminoethyl PO4 phospholipid = unusual plasticity + stability of troph
    • nucleic acid metabolism
      • no denovo purine synth.
      • no de novo pyrimidine synth.
      • no thymidylate synth.
      • use salvage pathways
      • must import things to make them
  • how produce energy
    • glycolysis
    • no ETS
    • no TCA cycle
  • invasion mechanisms into host
    • feces -> ingested
  • zoonotic or not
    • yes
  • diagnosis
    • rapid diagnostic test (fecal antigens)
    • staining fecal smear looking for cysts in normal formed feces or trophozoites in liquid fecal sample

27

GIARDIASIS

GIARDIA

28

life cycle

  • ingestion of cyst
  • excystation - trophozoite emerge to active state of feeding/mobility
  • trophozoite undergoes asexual replication (binary fission)
  • cyst/trophozoite in feces
  • cysts live outside host

29

general info

infective stage

  • cyst

pathology stage

  • trophozoite

transmission

  • fecal contaminated food/water
  • anal-oral sex

location

  • small intestine

symptoms

  • diarrhea (not bloody)
  • steatorrhea

diagnosis

  • dip stick
  • fecal exam (microscope for trophozoites + cysts)
  • enterotest
    • swallow string for few hrs -> pull up/out and will have parasites on it

30

organelles present

different

  • blepharoplast
  • parabasal body
  • axoneme
  • axostyle

same

  • ER
  • microtubules

31

organelles missing

  • mitochondria
  • cytochomes

32

body

card image

sucking disc

  • stick to epithelial cells

2 nuclei

4 pairs flagella

see pic

cyst

  • thick wall
  • 2-4 nuclei
  • granular cytoplasm
  • remains of locomotor apparatus

33

EVERY ORGANISM HAS

ELECTRON TRANPORT SYSTEM

34

energy production

  • glycolysis
  • arginine catabolism pathway

35

trophozoites

  • in gut lumen
  • may cause ppl to not poop for weeks bc trophozoites clog gut

36

other animals that have giardia

  • dogs
  • beavers

defecate in streams -> go downstream -> if drink, get infected

37

leuwenhoek

  • made microscope
  • used to see giardia in own feces

38

diagnosis

  • rapid diagnostic test
  • stained fecal sample + examine w/ light microscope
  • enterotest

39

life cycle again

card image

40

KNOW WELL FOR GIARDIA

  • life cycles starting w/ infected stage
    • mature cyst - ingested
      • contaminated food/water / in stool/poop
    • -> trophozoite
      • duodenum, upper ileum, gall bladder
      • -> cyst -> outside
      • have sucking disc - stick to epithelial cells
    • -> multiply (binary fission)
    • -> diarrhea
    • -> outside
    • cysts + trophozoites in feces
  • organelles present + their function
    • missing
      • mitochondria
      • cytochromes
    • axonemes
    • karyosome
    • blepharoplasts
    • nuclei
      • 2 - trophozoite
      • 2-4 - cyst
    • parabasal body
    • axostyle
      • involved with flagella of trophozoites (mobility/structure)
    • ER
    • microtubules
    • ventral disk
    • median bodies
    • flagella
    • mitosome
  • metabolic pathways + how diff from humans for glycolysis, nucleic acids, lipids
    • glycolysis (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • arginine catabolism pathway
  • how produce energy
    • glycolysis
    • arginine catabolism pathway
  • invasion mechanisms into host
    • ingestion
    • stay by sucking disc - stick to epithelium
  • zoonotic or not
    • yes
      • dogs, bevers, etc.
  • diagnosis
    • rapid diagnostic test
    • fecal sample stained w/ light microscope
    • enterotest - string test, is used to retrieve parasites that inhabit the duodenal area. A gelatin capsule surrounding the end of a string is swallowed by the patient; the other end of the string is taped to their cheek.

41

trichomoniasis

trichomonas vaginalis

42

life cycle

card image

NO cyst stage

only trophozoite stage

only transmitted sexual intercourse

  1. trophozoite in vaginal / prostatic secretions + urine
  2. multiplies by longitudinal binary fission
  3. trophozoite in vagina/orifice of urethra

43

general facts

infective stage

  • trophozoite

pathology stage

  • trophozoite

transmission

  • sexual relations - no cyst

location in body

  • vagina, urethra of men

symptoms

  • vaginitis - men little signs

diagnosis

  • examine vaginal secretions w/ wet mount under microscope for live parasites
  • dip stick tests

44

trophozoites in vagina

  • flatten when get on tissue
    • cause damage in vaginal cells (lining vagina)
    • -> excrete enzymes + cause inflammatory response = kill vaginal cells important bc weaken barrier that keeps HIV out
    • if have this + exposed to HIV = much easier to contract HIV
  • can get reinfected bc no immune response (dont go in tissue)
    • ping pong infection
  • must always treat the male too

45

organelles

  • hydrogenosome
  • costa
    • contractile organelle - mechanical support for undulating mem
  • golgi
  • 4 anterior flagella
  • undulating membrane - 1 flagellum (movement)
  • lysosomes

46

structures

card image
  • AX - axostyle
  • ER
  • FV - food vacuole
  • H - hydrogenosome
  • RF - rear flagellum
  • CO - costa
  • F - flagellum

47

hydrogenosome

  • NO dna
  • NO cristae
  • NO cytochromes
  • no ribosomes
  • has ETS
  • has pyruvate catabolism
  • molecular hydrogen - produced

48

hydrogenosome metabolism

  • substrate level phosphorylation
    • glycolysis
    • catabolism of arginine
  • pyruvate catabolism
  • pyruvate enters
  • molecular hydrogen, malate, acetate, ATP exit
  • NO TCA cycle

49

hydrogenosome Rx

card image

metabolism

  • pyruvate / malate go in
  • H2, acetate, CO2 go out

50

cont.

card image

51

diagnosis

  • direct observation of living trophozoites in vaginal sample w/ light microscope (no staining needed)
  • some RDT's available (rapid diagnostic tests)

52

KNOW WELL FOR TRICHOMONIASIS

TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS

  • life cycles starting w/ infected stage
    • NO CYST STAGE
    • only trophozoite
    • trophozoite in vagina + prostatic secretions + urine
    • multiply (binary fission)
    • trophozoite in vagina / urethra
    • sexual intercourse
  • organelles present + their function
    • flagella (4) anterior
    • blepharoplast (mass or granules)
    • 1 nucleus
    • cytosome
    • axostyle
    • hydrogenosome
      • no cristae
      • no DNA
      • no cytochromes
      • no ribosomes
      • HAS ETS (all things do)
      • pyruvate catabolism
      • molecular hydrogen produced
      • where do metabolism
    • costa - contractile organelle (mechanical support for undulating mem)
    • golgi apparatus
    • undulating membrane (1 flagellum)
    • lysosomes
  • metabolic pathways + how diff from humans for glycolysis, nucleic acids, lipids
    • substrate level phosphorylation
      • glycolysis
      • catabolism of arginine
    • NO TCA cycle
    • pyruvate catabolism
    • molecular hydrogen, malate, acetate, ATP exit
  • how produce energy
    • substrate level phosphorylation
    • = glycolysis + catabolism of arginine
    • pyruvate metabolism -> ATP, acetate, H2, CO2
  • invasion mechanisms into host
    • nothing, transmitted
    • flattens on tissue -> cause damage to vaginal cells -> inflammation -> weaken epithelial barrier -> HIV can get in/contracted
  • zoonotic or not
    • no
  • diagnosis
    • examine vaginal secretions with wet mount under microscope
    • dipstick tests
    • rapid diagnostic tests

53

free living amoebas that kill humans

naegleria

balamuthia

acanthamoeba

54

primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)

naegleria

55

life cycle

card image
  • amoeba is what infects humans
    • flagellate not in humans
    • cyst not in humans
  • does NOT need humans to reproduce
    • reproduce on own
  • find in water where feed on bacteria

56

naegleria, acanthamoeba, and balamuthia

brain eating amoeba

57

naegleria general info

infective stage

  • trophozoite

pathology stage

  • trophozoite - only in man

transmission

  • swimming in freshwater, using neti pot

location in body

  • CNS

symptoms

  • meningitis

diagnosis

  • spinal tap for trophozoite, recent swim in fresh water

58

organelles + ETS + energy

  • has ALL ORGANELLES NORMAL EUKARYOTIC CELL DOES
    • TCA, fatty acid synth, etc. all for these
  • ETS like normal euk cell - oxidative lvl phos for ATP production
  • glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid metabolism
  • has same nucleic acid + lipid synthesis as normal eukaryotic cell

59

KNOW WELL FOR NAEGLERIA

  • life cycles starting w/ infected stage
    • trophozoite
      • enter body (thru nose)
    • -> stay amoeba (trophozoite) form in humans
    • does not rely on humans - feed on bacteria in water
  • organelles present + their function
    • ALL of normal euk cell
      • TCA, fatty acid synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis
      • nucleic acid / lipid synthesis
  • metabolic pathways + how diff from humans for glycolysis, nucleic acids, lipids
    • normal euk cells
  • how produce energy
    • normal euk cells
  • invasion mechanisms into host
    • through nose from water
    • go into brain
  • zoonotic or not
    • no
  • diagnosis
    • spinal tap for trophozoites
    • recent swimming in fresh water

60

branulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic ketatitis

2 diff diseases caused by acanthamoeba

61

acanthamoeba encephalatic

infective stage

  • cyst or trophozoite

pathology stage

  • trophozoite

transmission

  • inhale cyst
  • ingest cyst
  • swim in fresh water
  • normally thru mouth (can be thru skin)

location in body

  • brain
  • skin

symptoms

  • chronic encephalatis
  • skin lesions

diagnosis

  • CAT scan
  • spinal tap

62

infections caused by acanthamoeba spp.

card image

63

trophozoite in brain

card image

64

infection in eye

very red / pink

need drug to treat it

65

acanthamoeba ketatitis

infective stage

  • cyst
  • trohozoite

pathology stage

  • trophozoite

transmission

  • contaminated contact solution
  • contaminated environment

location in body

  • eye

symptoms

  • inflammation of cornea

diagnosis

  • deep corneal scrapings or biopsy + material stained + cultured

66

avoid

use sterile contact soln + clean fingers

67

metabolism + organelles

  • same as naegleria
  • has ALL ORGANELLES NORMAL EUKARYOTIC CELL DOES
    • TCA, fatty acid synth, etc. all for these
  • ETS like normal euk cell - oxidative lvl phos for ATP production
  • glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid metabolism
  • has same nucleic acid + lipid synthesis as normal eukaryotic cell

68

granulomatous amebic encephalitis

Balamuthia mandrillaris

69

general info

infective stage

  • cyst

pathology stage

  • trophozoite

transmission

  • ingestion of cyst

location in body

  • brain
  • skin (lesions)

symptoms

  • encephalitis

diagnosis

  • CAT scan
  • spinal tap
  • scrape skin

70

life cycle

card image
  • nucleus divides into mother nucleus

cyst -> in person

outside person cyst -> trophozoite -> in person

-> mitosis

71

trophozoite vs cyst

card image

72

metabolism and organelles

exactly like naegleria

  • has ALL ORGANELLES NORMAL EUKARYOTIC CELL DOES
    • TCA, fatty acid synth, etc. all for these
  • ETS like normal euk cell - oxidative lvl phos for ATP production
  • glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid metabolism
  • has same nucleic acid + lipid synthesis as normal eukaryotic cell

73

routes of transmission

card image

anal - oral route

  • feces
  • passed by vectors like flies or by direct touching of dirty hands, etc.
  • anal-oral contact with infected ppl

pic shows prevention