Parasitology Vaccines lecture Flashcards


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  • Injected parasites into 3 ppl w/ irradiated sporozoites

–Stopped at certain stage

–Did reduce malaria in 2/3 ppl

–No one else picked this up until more recently

–New company made vaccine w/ irradiated sporozoites -> testing ppl in Africa for last 3 years

–Decided has to be coupled w/ chloroquine

–To give to ppl in Africa, must store parasites in liquid nitrogen + inject into IV

–Not very feasible for giving to ppl in Africa

–Sporozoite outer covering/coat – genes taken from them (called circumsporozoite)

–-> tried making into vaccine

–Give to owl monkeys (that get human malaria), also used for eye research

–These monkeys used for most of vaccine work for malaria (valuable animal)

–Mid 80s roja gave vaccine to 2000 soldiers – see how many got malaria vs placebo group

–Found 50% worked

–Wouldn’t disclose what was in the vaccine -> leaked

–Ppl tested it in monkeys -> did NOT work

–No other good vaccine

–Oxford made mRNA vaccine, supposedly working well

–Wanna make 1 vaccine to each attack sexual stages, asexual stages, gametocytes, etc., still making now

–Antibodies vs sporozoites (which only last abt ½ hr), so must target before they go into liver

–Tried to make vaccines to attack the sporozoites based on antibodies

–Figured out needed to have CD8 cells in vaccine to stimulate CD8 cells in body to kill parasite in host cells (used CD4 cells before)

–= need CD8 response

–Vaccine now is partly cell mediates/CD8 mediated, still needs lot of work

–Mostly killing young kids (don’t have good immune response)

–Studies w/ students infected in African country (considered immune) -> moved to England

–There for 3-4 years

–Found students lost their immunity (few memory cells left)

–Went back home + got reinfected w/ malaria

Immune in general if have some parasites in body (premonition immunity)

Protected as long as youre infected

–Relapse – vivax only (hypnozoites, come out = reinfection from parasites still in body)

–Recrudesense – parasites hiding in RBC in body -> reinfected

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  • Lupus – more common in women

–Characterized by mask of redness on skin

–Autoimmune disease

–On joints, kidneys etc. where problems seen

–Women in African endemic areas DON’T have lupus

–Treated with anti-inflammatory (hydroxychloroquine, not good for covid though)

READ Ejournal – trends in parasitology – May 2022 article “tangled web of autoreactive b cells in malaria immunity and autoimmune diease”

Study of malaria in infected ppl -> leading to autoimmune diseases

Think immune reaction against malara parasites (inflammatory)

Ppl rarely have lupus in malarial endemic areas

Basically: no vaccines made that work yet