Blood Flashcards


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1

BLOOD COLOR

Oxygen rich: red

Oxygen poor: dark red

2

BLOOD DENSITY

heavier than water

3

BLOOD VISCOSITY

(In term of oil)

5x thicker than water

4

BLOOD pH

Slight alkaline 7.35-7.45

5

BLOOD VOLUME

MALE: 5-6 liters

FEMALE: 4-5 liters

6

BLOOD FUNCTIONS

  1. transportation of materials
  2. regulation
  3. protection or defense

7

TRANSPORTATION OF MATERIALS

  • oxygen, nutrients
  • wastes - carbon dioxide
  • hormones

8

REGULATION

maintenance

  • body temperature
  • pH
  • body fluid levels
  • osmotic pressure

9

PROTECTION OR DEFENSE

  • heavy blood loss = clotting
  • infection
  • removal of bacteria

10

Why is blood a type of fluid connective tissue?

contains components known as plasma

11

Composition of blood plasma

91% water & 9% solutes

12

Buffy coat

WBCs & platelets together less than 1% and separate as a thin layer

13

Formed elements of blood

  1. Erythrocytes
  2. leukocytes
  3. platelets

14

Erythrocytes

RBC

  • carry oxygen

15

Leukocytes

WBC

  • protection and defense

16

Platelets

Blood clotting

17

Hematocrit

% volume of RBCs in total blood volume

18

Normal range of hematocrit

Females: 38-46%

Males: 40-54%

19

Low hematocrit effect

Cannot carry oxygen =anemia

20

High hematocrit effect

Blood becomes viscous

21

Erythrocytes size and shape

Shape: biconcave discs like doughnuts

size: 7.5 um

22

Erythrocytes number and special features

4-6 million per micro liter

hemoglobin

no nucleus (anucleate) & mitochondria

23

Anemias

Less oxygen carrying capacity of blood due to any reason

24

Hemorrhagic anemia

Sudden loss of blood

25

Pernicious anemia

Lack of vit B12

26

Aplastic anemia

Destruction of bone narrow

27

Iron-deficiency anemia

Lack of iron

28

Sickle cell anemia

Genetic defect

29

Thalassemia

Problems with forming some chain of hemoglobin

30

Polycythemia

Abnormal increase in # of RBCs

Cause: high altitude or bone narrow cancer

31

Hemopoiesis

Formation of formed elements of blood

32

Hemopoiesis location

Before birth: yolk sack, spleen, liver

3mos before birth: red bone narrow (myeloid tissue)

33

Hemocytoblast

  • Produces RBC, WBC, platelets

34

Lymphoid stem cells

Produces lymphocytes

35

Myeloid stem cells

Produces all the rest of the formed elements of blood

36

EPO (ERYTHROPOIETIN)

  • Secreted by the kidneys
  • Increases production of RBCs

37

Cytokins

increase production of WBCs

38

Thrombopoietin

  • Produced by liver
  • increase production of platetes

39

Hemostasis

process of preventing loss of blood from damaged blood vessels

40

Hemostasis 3 phases

  1. vascular spams
  2. formation of platelet plug
  3. blood clotting

41

1. VASCULAR SPAMS

  • constriction of injured blood vessels
  • blood flow to site of injury is slowed down or stop

42

2. FORMATION OF PLATELET PLUG (WHITE THOMBUS)

  1. platelet adhesion: platelets get stuck to damaged cells
  2. platelet release reaction: activated and release chemicals to attract more platelets
  3. platelet aggregation: ADP makes it more sticky and form a plug

43

3. BLOOD CLOTTING (COAGULATION)

requires 13 blood blotting factors

44

INTRINSIC PATHWAY

  • in the blood
  • complex
  • longer and slower pathway

45

EXTRINSIC PATHWAY

  • outside the blood
  • short cut pathway

46

How is the clot remove?

  1. clot retraction
  2. fibrinolysis

47

Clot retraction

tightening of the clot pulls the edges of damaged blood vessel together

48

Fibrinolysis

(t-PA) tissue plasminogen activator

activates plasminogen into plasmin - digest the fibrin threads

49

Anticoagulant

chemical which do not allow blood to coagulate

50

Anticoagulant examples

  • heparin
  • coumadin
  • warfarin
  • dicumarol

51

Hemostasis disorders

  1. thrombus
  2. embolus
  3. hemophilla

52

Thrombus

a clot develops and persist in unbroken blood vessel

ex: Conary thrombus

53

Embolus

a clot that breaks away from blood vessel and floats free

ex: cerebral embolus

54

Hemophillia

  • bleeder's disease
  • mainly hereditary
  • more in males

55

Hemophilia

hemophilia A: due to deficiency of factor VIII(8)

hemophilia B: due to deficiency of factor IX(9)

56

LEUKOCYTOSIS

normal increase in WBC # (during infection)

57

LEUKOMIA

  • white blood cancer
  • pathological increase in WBC #

ex: during cancer of bone narrow

58

JAUNDICE

whites of the eyes and mucous membranes turn yellow

59

ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS

EX: mother: Rh- fetus: Rh+

hemolytic disease in the newborn (HDN) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus

60

Universal donor

O

61

Universal recipient

A, B, O, AB

62

BLOOD TYPE: A

antigen (agglutinogens): A
antibodies (agglutinins): B
blood that can be received: A and O

63

BLOOD TYPE: B

antigen: B
antibodies: A
blood that can be received: B and O

64

BLOOD TYPE: AB

antigen: A&B
antibodies: neither A or B
blood that can be received: A, B, AB, O

65

BLOOD TYPE: O

antigen: neither A or B
antibodies: both A&B
blood that can be received: O

66

When do transfusion reactions occur

if mismatched blood is infused

67

Inheritance of blood I

  • Blood type is inherited from both parents
  • mother and father contribute one allele each to the offspring

68

Inheritance of blood II

When the offspring inherits two different alleles for blood type = combination of the father’s antigens and the mother’s antigens.

69

Different type of leukocytes

  1. neutrophils
  2. l ymphocytes
  3. monocytes
  4. eosinophils
  5. basophils

70

Difference between agranulocytes and granulocytes

Granulocytes develop from red bone marrow

Agranulocytes develop from lymphoid a myeloid tissue

71

Neutrophils

  • First Responder
  • Most abundant WBC travels in the blood looking for infections
  • 60%-70%

72

Lymphocytes

  • release antibodies (B), Attack viruses (T)
  • 20%-25% of WBC

73

Monocytes

  • Rebuild damaged tissue
  • Produce proteins & antigens
  • 3%-8% of WBC

74

Eosinophils

  • Fight bacteria and parasites
  • 2%-4% of WBC

75

Basophils

  • Responsible for allergic reactions
  • 0.5%-1% of WBC (smallest)