2/2 and 2/7 for QUIZ Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 1 year ago by bitchalaureate_of_science
5 views
updated 1 year ago by bitchalaureate_of_science
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

X-linked, causes susceptibility to ROS, triggered by beans for some reason

2

metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions occurring in a cell at one time

3

catabolism

creates useful energy

4

anabolism

uses energy

5

photosynthesis

uses CO2, produces O2

6

cellular respiration

uses O2, produces CO2

7

oxidation

lose electrons

8

reduction

gain electrons

9

activated carriers

small molecules containing energy rich covalent bonds

10

coupled reactions

use energetically favorable reaction to power an unfavorable one

11

most abundant activated carrier

ATP

12

free energy

amount of energy available to do work

13

negative delta G

spontaneous/favorable reaction

14

what cellular respiration does

uses stepwise reactions to capture energy from activated carriers

15

3 broad stages of catabolism

breakdown of large molecules into simple subunits, breakdown of simple subunits into acetyl CoA (little ATP), complete oxidation of acetyl CoA (lots of ATP)

16

energy investment

energy has to be spent in order to be made

17

glycolysis

glucose is split into 2 pyruvate, pyruvate is split to create activated carriers

18

pyruvate dehydrogenase

complex of 3 enzymes, produces acetyl CoA and NADH

19

citrate produced from oxaloacetate, progressively oxidizing citrate, producing activated carriers

Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle

20

net result of one turn of Krebs cycle

3NADH, 1GTP, 1FADH2, 2CO2

21

Electron Transport Chain/Oxidative Phosphorylation

produces largest sum of ATP, requires O2

22

purpose of electron transport chain in mitochondria

transport of electrons through a membrane, establish a gradient to power oxidative phosphorylation

23

coupled stages of electron transport chain

electrons are passed along carriers, protons move down the gradient, make ATP

24

low redox potential

low affinity, more likely to donate electrons

25

NADH dehydrogenase complex

catalyzes extraction of electrons from NADH, pumps H+

26

Ubiquinone and cytochrome c

electron "ferries"

27

cytochrome c reductase complex

passes electrons and pumps protons

28

cytochrome c oxidase complex

pumps protons and reduces O2 to water

29

what powers proton pumps

movement of electrons

30

how proton pumps change

they shift through multiple conformations, changing affinity

31

what causes conformational changes in proton pumps

electron movement through carriers

32

what is used to power ATP synthase

gradient

33

proton pumping mechanism production

3ATP per spin, 100 per second

34

ATP hydrolysis

proton movement in the opposite direction

35

what ATP hydrolysis is used for

restore gradient, used by bacteria in hypoxic atmosphere

36

the final electron acceptor

oxygen

37

ATP synthesis

H+ moving to the other side of the membrane

38

how O2- radical is protected from reacting with the wrong molecules

cytochrome c oxidase prevents it from reacting with anything other than H+

39

leaky H+ ion channels (no gradient), electron movement is disconnected from proton pumping, or electrons cannot be transferred to O2

what uncoupling agents do

40

how cyanide kills you <3

high affinity to cytochrome c oxidase prevents electron transfer to O2

41

main source of most cyanide exposures

housefires

42

phosphagen system

can generate ATP without cell respiration

43

phosphocreatine

stored in muscle cells, can donate its phosphate to make ADP-->ATP

44

fermentation

in humans, pyruvate is fermented, lactate is produced, necessary to regenerate NAD+

45

treatments for severe G6PD

blood transfusions, spleen can be removed to prevent RBC destruction