Lecture exam 1 Flashcards


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1

What are endocrine glands?

Ductless glands that secrete into the blood then the blood delivers the hormone to all the body parts

2

What are hormones?

  • Chemical secreted in small quantities by endocrine cells
  • Alter the physiological active of target cells

3

What are target cells/organs?

Where hormone produces its effect

4

Endocrine action

Hormones travel in the blood for long distance signals

5

Autocrine action

Hormone affects the same cells that secrete it

6

Paracrine action

Hormone affects neighboring cells

ex: somatostatin in pancreas

7

Differences between endocrine, exocrine and mixed glands

  • Endocrine: ductless (ex: thyroid)
  • Exocrine: have ducts (ex: salivary gland)
  • mixed glands: both endo and exo parts (ex:pancreas)

8

Nervous system

NS:

  1. Neurotransmitters
  2. muscles and glands
  3. quick but effect for short time

9

Endocrine system

  1. Hormones
  2. control almost all
  3. slow but effect for long time

10

Chemical nature of hormones

  1. Water-soluble
  2. Lipid-soluble
  3. Eicosanoids

11

Water-soluble hormones

Amino acid based hormones

  • simple amines: modified amino acids
  • peptide hormones: short chain 3-49 amino acids
  • protein hormones: long chain >50 amino acids

12

Simple amines

  • epinephrine and norepinephrine
  • serotonin
  • melatonin

13

Peptide hormones

  • ADH
  • oxytocin

14

Protein hormones

  • Insulin
  • hGH

15

Lipid-soluble

  1. Steroid hormones: derived from cholesterol (ex: sex hormones: testis & ovaries)
  2. thyroid hormones: T3 &T4
  3. nitric oxide gas (NO)

16

Eicosanoids

  • local hormones - autocrine and paracrine
  • lipids
  • derived from 20 carbon fatty acids (Arachidonic acid)

17

Prostaglandins (PGs)

a group of lipids with hormone-like actions that your body makes at sites of tissue damage or infection

  • clotting
  • pain
  • inflammation

18

Leukotrienes (LTs)

  • chemicals your body releases
  • mediate allergy and inflammation

19

Hormone-Target cell specificity

A hormone produces its effects only on specific cells/organs

20

Why does a hormone act on a specific target?

Because the target cells has a specific receptor that it will bind to

21

Down regulation

too much hormone -> # of receptor goes down

22

Up regulation

too little hormone-> # of receptors goes up

23

Direct Gene Activation

  • For steroid hormones + thyroxine
  • hormone enters the cell
  • hormones bind to receptors in nucleus or cytoplasm
  • activate specific part of DNA

24

Second-Messenger system

  • for most hormones
  • hormones does not enter cell; second messenger is formed
  • receptors on plasma membrane
  • activates enzymes in cytoplasm

25

2 types of Diabetes Mellitus

Type I — insulin dependent DM (IDDM)

Type II — non insulin dependent DM (NIDDM)

26

Type I

  • appear before 15
  • beta cells produces insulin are destroyed by autoimmune

27

Type II

  • occurs after 40
  • 90% of all DM are type II & obese
  • familial and hereditary disposition

28

3 cardinal signs of DM

  1. Polyuria (too much urine)
  2. polydipsia (excessive thirst)
  3. Polyphagia (eat too much)

29

DM consequences

  • blindless
  • cataract
  • kidney failure
  • strokes
  • heart attack

30

Why is hypothalamus considered a neuronendocrine organ?

it releases neural hormones inside the brain

31

Hypophyseal portal system

A system of blood vessels that carries the blood with releasing hormones and from hypothalamus directly instead of taking it to the general blood stream

32

Leptin

  • Made by fat and regulates fat stored in the body
  • inhibits sensation of hunger
  • increase energy expenditure

33

Ghrelin

Hunger hormone

stomach empty -> ghrelin secreted

regulates the distribution and rate of use of energy