UNIT 2!! Flashcards


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1

what drives the function of the nervous system

action potential

2

charge and polarity of resting membrane potential

-70mV, polarized

3

charge and polarity of action potential

+20mV, depolarized

4

main source of any negative charge in cytoplasm during resting potential

proteins

5

main source of any positive charge in ISF during resting potential

sodium ions

6

main source of any positive charge in cytoplasm during resting potential

potassium

7

main source of any negative charge in ISF during resting potential

chloride ions

8

channels involved in action potential

sodium potassium pump, sodium channel, chloride channel, potassium channel

9

threshold for sodium channels to open completely

membrane polarization reaches -40mV

10

what causes sodium channels to become leaky initially

nerve stimulation

11

threshold for sodium channels to close

membrane polarization reaches +20mV

12

this occurs when sodium channels close

potassium channels open

13

action potential being transmitted along a membrane

propagation

14

what initiates depolarization in terms of propagation

potassium ions are shifted across a membrane instead of being let out through channels

15

how fast propagation occurs without insulation

5-10mph

16

how fast propagation occurs with insulation

200mph

17

what cells insulate an axon

Schwann cells

18

what gives action potential "boosts" in between Schwann cells

regions at nodes of Ranvier, allow the influx of sodium ions

19

cause of Multiple Sclerosis

oligodendrocytes in myelin sheaths are killed, slowing nerve response

20

symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (think about why these symptoms occur)

blurred vision, weak muscles, slurred speech, inflammation symptoms

21

Dr. Sas's favorite neurotransmitter

acetylcholine

22

what releases neurotransmitters at the site of a synapse

influx of calcium ions

23

what receives neurotransmitters on the post-synaptic neuron

receptors that are ligand-gated

24

how excitatory neurotransmitters function

cause sodium channels in post-synaptic cell to leak, causing depolarization

25

how inhibitory neurotransmitters function

cause potassium channels or calcium channels in the post synaptic cell to open, causing hyperpolarization

26

what is needed to send an action potential down an axon

a net excitatory input

27

temporal summation

one point eventually produces enough sodium influx to send action potential down

28

spatial summation

additive effect causes depolarization, sending action potential down

29

how neurons keep a response quick

removing excess NTs

30

2 ways excess NTs are removed

NTase and reuptake

31

GABA

inhibitory NT, uses chloride channels to hyperpolarize the cell

32

benzodiazepines

noncompetitive, allosteric, used for sedation

33

barbiturates

noncompetitive, potent sedation

34

Nitrous oxide

laughing gas, attaches to GABA receptor, causing chloride influx

35

alcohol

slows action potential propagation to 10mph, also slightly opens GABA channels

36

anesthesia

opens chloride or potassium channels

37

isoflurane

inhalation anesthetic, opens K+ channels

38

propofol

injected anesthetic, acts very quickly

39

fentanyl

injected anesthetic, acts on ยต opioid receptor instead of GABA

40

ketamine and PCP

competitively block glutamate at NMDA receptors

41

cocaine mechanism

blocks reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, creating continual excited response

42

conditions caused by leaky or hair trigger sodium channels

epilepsy, anxiety, migraines

43

NT receptor agonists, NT inhibitor stimulation, throttle Na+ or Ca+2 channels, open chloride channels partially to prevent spontaneous depolarization

treatments for elevated NS activity

44

possible physiological cause of depression

inadequate excitatory NTs

45

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor - like Prozac

46

MAOI

monoamine oxidase inhibitor, blocks degradation of amine NTs

47

3 mechanisms for treating depression

block reuptake, block NT degradation, pump with excitatory drugs like amphetamines