bio unit 4 and 5 exam Flashcards


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1

signal transduction pathway

sequence of molecular events and chemical reactions that lead to a cellular response following activation of a receptor by a signal

2

steps of signal transduction

reception- ligand binds to a receptor, activating it

transduction- receptor changes shape, activating another protein

response- signal is carried until it causes a response

3

kinase

phosphorylate to other proteins

4

phosphatase

removes phosphate groups

5

prokaryote reproduction

binary fission, asexual reproduction

6

mitosis

cell division of somatic/autosomal cells, purpose of growth and repair, produces two diploid identical cells

(2n->2n)

7

meiosis

2 major cell divisions, produces gametes/germ cells/sex cells, four haploid genetically different cells, purpose of increasing diversity and halving the number of chromosomes

(2n->1n)

8

crossing over

crossing of chromatids on homologous chromosomes at a chiasma, creates genetic diversity

9

diplontic life cycle

2n->1n

animals and some plants

formed via mitosis, then uses meiosis

10

haplontic life cycle

1n->1n

protists, fungi, and some algae

formed via meiosis, then uses mitosis

11

alternation of generations life cycle

alternates between 2n and 1n

most plants, some protists

meiosis the whole time

12

all zygotes are?

-diploid

13

interphase

normal cell functions

G1, S, G2

DNA is uncondensed (chromatin)

14

G1 Phase

cell growth in size (Interphase)

15

S Phase

synthesis, DNA is replicated (Interphase)

16

G2 Phase

cell prepares for mitosis (Interphase)

17

centromere

region where two chromatids join on a chromosome

18

G0

cell 'opts out' of mitosis, nerve cells and muscle cells

19

Mitosis Phases

P- prophase

M- mitosis

A- anaphase

T- telophase

20

Cytokinesis

separate from M phase, division of cellular components

animal cells- cleavage furrow (grows outside in)

plant cells- cell plate (grows inside out)

21

Cell Cycle dependent check points

intracellular controls which promote progression through the cell cycle

22

cyclins

proteins that upregulate and promote transition from one cell phase to another

23

(CDKs) cyclin dependent kinases

enzyme that phosphorylates specific target proteins, making it more or less active

must be activated by a cyclin

24

density dependent inhibition

physical contact activates molecules, preventing cell division

25

anchorage dependency

many cells need to be in contact with a solid surface to divide

26

independent assortment

chromosomes from each parent randomly assort along the equator, allows for genetic diversity

27

synapsis

pairing of homologous chromosomes

28

nondisjunction

failure of chromosomes to separate

29

aneuploidy

chromosomes lacking or in excess due to nondisjunction

30

nondisjunction during meiosis 1

n+1, n+1, n-1, n-1

31

nondisjunction during meiosis 2

n+1, n-1, n, n

32

if a diploid cell has 40 chromosomes, how many will it have after mitosis

40

33

if a diploid cell has 40 chromosomes, how many will it have after meiosis

20

34

chiasma/chiasmata

region where two chromatids on homologous chromosomes meet during crossing over

35

can crossing over occur multiple times?

yes

36

dihybrid heterozygous cross ratio

9:3:3:1

37

codominance

two alleles of a gene produce phenotypes that are both present

38

incomplete dominance

two alleles combine to represent a new allele, neither dominant nor recessive

39

linked genes-

-don't follow mendelian genetics rules

40

dihybrid heterozygous crossed with dihybrid homozygous recessive ratio

1:1:1:1

41

karyotype

display of chromosomes in order

42

kleinfelter's syndrome

2 X and a Y chromosome

43

turner's syndrome

only 1 X chromosome