Philosophy quiz 1 review Flashcards


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1

describe the ways in which philosophical questions differ from questions in other areas of inquiry

  • philosophical questions are more general
  • they involve clarifying concepts
    • provide conditions for the application of concepts (definitions)
  • they involve fundamental questions of justification
    • are assumptions made in the world rationally defensible?

2

the components of an argument

  • premises
    • propositions - declarative statements
    • give reason to believe conclusion
    • true or false
  • conclusion
    • proposition - declarative statement
    • the statement to be established
    • true or false

3

how deduction, induction, and abduction differ

  • deduction
    • truth of conclusion is guaranteed by the truth of the premises
    • conclusion must be entailed in the premises (limitation)
    • conclusion is a deductive consequence of the premises
    • valid or invalid
  • inductive/abductive inference
    • conclusion can go beyond the premise
    • conclusions can never be stated as true, can be said to be likely based on truth of premises
    • inductive
      • results of experiment that can be replicated
    • abductive
      • formulating an explanation of why something occurs
      • many times explains something cannot see

4

explain deductive arguments virtue / limitation

  • virtue
    • the conclusion is absolutely guaranteed by the truth of the premises if argument valid
  • limitation
    • the conclusion must be say things stated in the premises

5

definition of deductive validity

IF the premises WERE true, they would provide an absolute guarantee of the truth of the conclusion

6

test for validity / invalidity

  • isolate structure of the argument
  • discard content
  • determine
    • IF these premises are all true, is the truth of the conclusion GUARANTEED?
      • yes = deductively valid
    • is there ANY possibility that the conclusion could be false?
      • yes = deductively invalid

invalid argument form:

If P then Q

Q

then P

7

good arguments vs bad arguments

good argument

  • premises gives reason to believe the conclusion is true (rationally persuasive)
  • valid - truth of premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion
  • true premises

bad argument

  • does not give reason to believe the conclusion is true (not rationally persuasive)

8

circular arguments

  • arguments that do not provide reason to believe the conclusion if they do not already believe it
  • deductively valid argument
  • ex: horses are animals, therefore, horses are animals

9

what influences the strength of an inductive argument?

  • sample size (more = better)
  • randomization (more = better)

10

abductive arguments and explanations

  • are inferences to the best explanation
  • involve inferring what cannot be observed
  • formulate an explanation as to WHY something occurs
  • CANNOT ever say something is true/conclusion is true
  • can ONLY DISCONFIRM/DENY/ say something is false if predictions false
  • ex: Mendel's discovery of genes

11

theoris and predictions: how are true and false predictions evaluated?

  • can NEVER confirm a prediction/theory is true based on predictions
  • can DISCONFIRM if it makes false predictions
  • truth of theory does NOT follow deductively from truth of the prediction
    • would be INVALID

12

truth and falsity

  • truth
    • is objective and true for everyone independently of anyone's opinions
    • true proposition - world IS the way the proposition says it is
  • false proposition - world is NOT the way the proposition says it is

13

true for me

  • NEVER say this
  • misleading
  • is a misuse use of the truth predicate
  • TRUTH is true for everyone and is objective, existing outside of anyone's opinions/beliefs
  • truth only relies on the reality of the subject
  • saying "true for me" just means you believe something
  • this is subjective thinking

14

definition of God

in philosophy: ALL

  • powerful (omnipotent)
  • knowing (omniscient)
  • good (omnibenevolent)

15

Aquinas' first four ways

  • argument of motion
    • first mover (God)
    • caused first motion in natural world
  • argument of causality
    • God caused first event in natural world
  • argument of contingency
    • God is a necessary being
    • contingent things exist, so a necessary entity exists
  • argument of degrees
    • God has all possible degrees for all properties
    • objects show degrees of properties, so object must exist with all properties to maximum degrees

16

the birthday fallacy (know how it is committed in arguments)

  • every person has a birthday, a day which he or she was born
  • there is a single day that is everyone's birthday

arguments:

  • motion
    • says objects are caused to move by other objects (not themselves)
    • and then says entity (God) caused the motion of the first moving object that exists
    • fallacy - does not show there is ONE first movement (birthday fallacy), but only shows there is at LEAST one
  • causality
    • says every event has a cause, and cannot cause itself
    • conclusion: there is an entity (God) that caused the first event
    • fallacy - does not show there is ONE first cause (birthday fallacy), but only shows there is at LEAST one
  • contingency
    • says each contingent thing has a time at which it fails to exist
    • says this means that there would be an empty time in the past, and therefore the world would be forever empty
    • fallacy - even if contingent objects necessarily have a time they failed to exist, cannot conclude that there is 1 time where there is NO objects (birthday fallacy)
  • degrees
    • says objects have properties to degrees
    • so then there must exist an object with properties to all possible degrees
    • fallacy - even if there is a maximum exemplar of moral goodness, CANNOT conclude that there is a single entity (birthday fallacy) who is all-PKG just from these premises

17

contingency vs. necessity

  • contingency
    • depends on something for it to exist (could have failed to exist)
    • does not exist in all possible worlds
  • necessity
    • does not depend on something else for it to exist (could NOT have failed to exist)
    • DOES exist in all possible worlds

18

contingent vs. necessary propositions

  • necessary propositions
    • propositions that are true in all possible worlds
    • arithmetic truths, shapes, etc.
  • contingent propositions
    • are NOT true in all possible worlds (true in some/false in others)
    • ex: this binder is blue

19

Aquinas' argument from design vs. Paley's argument from design

  • Aquinas' arguments
    • deductive arguments
    • none work - all have fallacies
  • Paley's argument
    • abductive
    • might work
    • Hume's arguments do not do anything because he thought it was an inductive argument