Unit 9 Mendelian Genetics Flashcards


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Inheritance patterns, Genetic Crosses
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1

Heredity

Passing on of traits from parent to offspring.

2

Alleles

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Versions of a gene

Ex: gene - hair color; alleles - brown, blonde, red etc.

3

Homozygous

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Having 2 of the same alleles for a gene

Ex: BB or bb

4

Heterozygous

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Having 2 different alleles for a gene

Ex: Bb

5

Dominant

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Trait that is expressed with only 1 copy of the allele present. Represented with capital letter.

6

Recessive

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Trait that is expressed only when 2 copies of the allele is present. It is masked by dominant allele when in heterozygous combination. Represented by lower case letter.

7

Genotype

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The alleles present in an organism; genetic makeup. Represented by letters. Determines phenotype.

8

Phenotype

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The physical appearance or detectable traits of an organism which is determined by genotype.

9

Homologous Chromosomes

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A pair of chromosomes that carry the same types of genes.

10

Punnett Square

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Chart that predicts the results of a genetic cross.

11

Monohybrid Cross

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Cross showing 1 trait

Ex: flower color

12

Law of Independent Assortment

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States that homologous chromosomes separate independently of one another during meiosis allowing for different possible combinations in the gametes.

13

Incomplete Dominance

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Inheritance pattern where neither allele is dominant and an intermediate phenotype is shown with heterozygous genotype.

14

Codominance

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Inheritance pattern where both alleles are dominant and both are shown in the phenotype.

15

Multiple Alleles

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Trait that is controlled by 3 or more alleles.

Ex: blood type has 3 alleles - A, B and O.

16

Sex Linked Traits

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Traits that are on the sex chromosomes - X or Y. Males are more likely to display sex linked traits.

17

Pedigree

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Chart that shows how a trait is passed through multiple generations.