PHYSIO CHAPTER 1 Flashcards


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1

ANATOMY

STUDY OF STRUCTURES, "WHAT AND WHERE"

2

PHYSIOLOGY

BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION, PROCESSES, "WHEN HOW WHY WHAT"

3

HIERARCHY OF PHYSIO

ATOMS, MOLECULES, CELLS, ORGANS, ORGAN SYSTEMS

4

Homeostasis

mechanisms used by body components to maintain the balance of internal environments

5

Homeostasis applies to all internal environments ?

TRUE

6

Normal Range

Highest and lowest parameter values that convey normal function

7

Set Point

target or ideal parameter value

8

Dynamic Constancy

Human body is never perfect, constant process, conditions stabilize the set point

9

To maintain homeostasis, the body relies on signals

True

10

Negative Feedback

drives parameter back to set point

11

Positive feedback

drives parameter further away from set point, MIGHT BE PART OF NEGATIVE FEEDBACK loops, maintain homeostasis

12

(1) Stimulus (In Negative Feedback)

Parameter outside normal range

13

(2) Signal

Chemical/ Electrochemical, Starts an action potential

14

(3) Integration

Signal is interpreted

15

(4) Response

Sends signals to effectors

16

Antagonistic Factors

Relationship between two components in feedback loop

Facilitates regulation of body

17

Chemical Signals

Include hormones and other molecules

18

Electrochemical signals

involves both a chemical and change in membrane potential (action potential)

19

Intrinsic Signal Pathways

Built in, local signals regulate

20

Extrinsic Signal Pathways

body system is regulated by external signals from the nervous and endocrine system.

21

Cell Theory

Living things are composed of Cells

The cell is the most basic unit of life

All cells are pre-existing

22

Tissues

Collection of cells working together

23

Organs

Collection of tissues working together

24

Epithelial Tissue

Internal External linings

25

Connective Tissue

Binds tissues together

26

Muscle Tissue

Facilitates movement contraction/relaxation of protein fibers

27

Neural Tissue

Enables the communication between organs through the generation/ interpretation of biochemical signals

28

Connective Tissue (2)

Most diverse, many different cells

Function: bind and support

29

Loose Connective Tissue (LCT)

Areolar, Adipose, Reticular

30

Dense Connective Tissue (DCT)

Dense Regular, Dense Irregular, Elastic

31

LCT Areolar Tissue

Found everywhere, often connected to epithelial tissue

32

LCT Adipose Tissue

Found throughout the body, Energy (fat) storage), insulation

33

LCT Reticular Tissue

Kidney, Liver, Spleen, Lymph nodes; support lymphatic organs, Bind adipose tissue

34

DCT Dense Regular/Irregular

Regular = Parrallel arrangment

Irregular = diff direction

Function: Bind and support

Found in: Tendons, Ligaments (Regular)

Found in: Deep Dermis, digestive tract (Irregular)

35

DCT Elastic Tissue

Blood vessels

Function: Flexibility, structural support

36

Bone

Compact, Spongy Bone

Function: Protection, Structural support, Attachment for muscles, Ion storage

37

Cartilage

Hyaline, Fibrocartilage, Elastic

Cell: chondrocyte

Found in joints, ear nose

Function: flexibility, reduce friction, contribute to bone formation

38

Blood

Found in circulatory system

Function: blood clotting, delivery elements

39

White Blood

Leukocyte

40

Red blood

erythrocyte

41

Platelets

thrombocyte

42

Muscle

Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth Muscle,

Function: provide movement through contraction of protein fibers

43

neurons

respond to internal and external stimuli, action potentials

44

Epithelial Tissue

Membranes and Glands: Protection, Secretion, Adsorption, Excretion

45

Cell Types

Squamous = flat

Cuboidal = cube

Columnar = column

46

Layers

Simple = one layer

Stratified = multiple layers

Pseudostratified = single layer

47

Special cells

Goblet Cells = mucous

Ciliated cells = absorption/secretion

48

Directional Cell Types

Basal = deepest

Apical = at the top

Stem cell = immature at basal layer

49

Exocrine Gland

Have ducts (tubes to surface)

Sweat glands

50

Endocrine Glands

Lack ducts

pancreas, adrenal, secret into blood stream