Bio 1 Test Flashcards


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1

As scientists examine a very complex part of nature, they will often begin with a ______ approach and then eventually try a _______ approach.

reductionist, systems

2

hierarchy of biological organization
from the least to the most complex level?

molecule, cell, organ system, population, ecosystem, biosphere

3

Technology can be described as

applying science to make our lives better, to make useful products, to restore our environment, to preserve nature

4

Which of the following statements concerning prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is not correct

Prokaryotic cells contain small membrane-enclosed organelles

5

Which of the following is reflective of the phrase "the whole is greater than the sum of its parts"

emergent properties

6

About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen

7

Virtually all organisms require the same elements in the same quantities

false

8

The mass number of an element can be easily approximated by adding together the number of __________ in an atom of that element

protons and neutrons

9

Calcium has an atomic number of 20 and an atomic mass of 40. Therefore, a calcium atom must have

20 protons

10

How do isotopes of the same element differ from each other

number of neutrons

11

A covalent chemical bond is one in which

outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron
shells of both atoms

12

Nitrogen (N) is much more electronegative than hydrogen (H). Which of the following statements is correct about the atoms in ammonia (NH3)

Each hydrogen atom has a partial positive charge

13

When two atoms are equally electronegative, they will interact to form

nonpolar covalent bonds

14

Which of the following explains most specifically the attraction of water molecules to one another

hydrogen bonds

15

An element “X” on the left side of the Periodic Table is known to give electrons to other atoms that are more electronegative. Which of the following statements is true?

element would form a type of cation

16

Sulfur is in the 3rd Period, 6 ‘boxes’ over to the right. Sulfur combines with hydrogen by covalent bonding to form a compound, hydrogen sulfide. Based on the number of valence electrons in a sulfur atom, predict the molecular formula of the compound

H2S

17

example of a hydrogen bond is the bond between

the H of one water molecule and the O of another water molecule

18

Why does ice float in liquid water

Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecules of ice farther apart than the water
molecules of liquid water.

19

Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

nonpolar substances that repel water molecules

20

One mole (mol) of a substance is

6.02 × 1023 molecules of the substance

molecular mass of the substance expressed in grams

21

When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-). In contrast, the atoms of covalently bonded molecules (e.g., glucose, sucrose, glycerol) do not
generally dissociate when placed in aqueous solution. Which of the following solutions would be expected to contain the greatest number of particles (molecules or ions)?

1 L of 1.0 M NaCl

22

molecular mass of glucose (C6H12O6) is 180 g. Which of the
following procedures should you carry out to make a 0.5 M solution of glucose

Dissolve 90 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more
water until the total volume of the solution is 1 L

23

A given solution contains 0.0001(10-4) moles of hydrogen ions [H+] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution

acidic: H+ donor

24

If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the

concentration of H+ has increased 10-fold (10X) compared to what it was at pH 9 and concentration of OH- has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9

25

Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions

They maintain a relatively constant pH when either acids or bases are added to them

26

Organic chemistry is currently defined as

the study of carbon compounds

27

Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water

majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages

28

compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group.
Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound

It should dissolve in water

29

Which is the best description of a carbonyl group

carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond

30

Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen?

amino acid such as glycine

31

Testosterone and estradiol(a type of estrogen) are male and female sex hormones, respectively, in many vertebrates. In what way(s) do these molecules differ from each other?

estosterone and estradiol have different functional groups attached to the same carbon skeleton

32

what isn’t a polymer

glucose

33

What is the chemical mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers

dehydration reactions

34

The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a molecule made by linking three glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions

C18 H32 O16

35

Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified

as a disaccharide

36

what is true about saturated fats

They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids

37

Large organic molecules are usually assembled by polymerization of a few kinds of simple subunits. Which of the following is an exception to this statement

steroid

38

There are 20 different amino acids. What makes one amino acid different from another

different side chains (R groups) attached to an alpha (α) carbon

39

Which bonds are created during the formation of the primary structure of a protein

peptide bonds

40

The α helix and the β pleated sheet are both common polypeptide forms found in which level of protein structure?

secondary

41

The R group or side chain of the amino acid serine is —CH2COOH. The R group or side chain of the amino acid alanine is —CH3. Where would you expect to find these amino acids in a globular protein in an aqueous (watery) solution

Alanine would be in the interior, and serine would be on the exterior of the globular protein

42

Which of the following statements about the 5' end of a polynucleotide strand of DNA is correct

5' end has a phosphate group attached to the number 5 carbon of ribose

43

Which of the following descriptions best fits the class of molecules known as nucleotides

a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

44

If one strand of a DNA molecule has the sequence of bases 5'ATTGCA3', the other complementary strand would have the sequence

3'TAACGT5'

45

example of hydrolysis

the reaction of a fat, forming glycerol and fatty acids with the utilization of water

46

Adding base (OH-) to a solution increases it

pH

47

Electrons move about the nucleus
of an atom in this region

electron cloud

48

-COOH

carboxyl group

49

A scale to measure the number of H+ ions

pH

50

Two chemicals with the same formula but different structures (and chemical properties)

isomers

51

tentative explanation

hypothesis

52

When the “whole is greater than the sum of its parts”

emergent properties

53

Going from a general statement to a specific conclusion

deductive reasoning

54

Studying a small part of a complicated problem

reductionism

55

An approach trying to understand all the interrelationships going on inside of a cell

systems approach

56

Monosaccharides joined together or amino acids joined together are examples

polymers

57

A glucose joined to a fructose

sucrose

58

Made of protein, these catalysts speed up chemical reactions

enzymes

59

A molecule that has both -NH2 and –COOH groups

amino acid

60

Fatty acids with just single bonded carbons

saturated

61

The ‘stickiness’ of water molecules is due to this

hydrogen bonding

62

H20 in its least dense form

ice

63

type of bond WITHIN a water molecule

polar covalent

64

type of bond between two atoms with nearly equal electronegativity

nonpolar covalent

65

substances that dissolve in water (loves water)

hydrophilic

66

Carbon compounds that come from living organisms

organic

67

The type of bond between two carbon atoms when they share 2 pairs of electrons

double bond

68

Compounds made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms

hydrocarbons

69

Ethane (C2H6) becomes this when an oxygen atom is added

ethanol (C2H50H)

70

The tendency of water molecules
to stick to each other (surface tension only at the surface)

cohesion

71

Functional group found in all alcohols

hydroxyl (-OH)

72

The means for evolution proposed by Darwin

natural selection

73

General type of reaction used to join two monomers

dehydration

74

The general name of a substance that is dissolved in a solvent

solute

75

The pH of a solution with a 10-9 M concentration of hydroxide ions

5