*GEO 101 Exam #1 REVIEW Qs + Guaranteed Qs Flashcards


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1

Which principle states that when sediment is deposited, it is flat-lying?

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships

Principle of Inclusions

Principle of Original Horizontality

2

Which principle states that the oldest material is on the bottom and the youngest is on top?

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Cross-Cutting Relationships

Principle of Inclusions

Principle of Superposition

3

Which principle states that the “present is the key to the past?”

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Uniformitarianism

Principle of Inclusions

Principle of Uniformitarianism

4

Which principle states that rock/sediments accumulate in continuous layers that abrupt ends indicate a later disturbance?

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Original Continuity

Principle of Inclusions

Principle of Original Continuity

5

Which principle states that rock that has been heated by magma (molten rock) must be older than the hot material?

Principle of Uniformitarianism

Principle of Baked Contacts

Principle of Original Horizontality

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Baked Contacts

6

Which principle states that pieces of rock included inside another rock must be older than the surrounding matrix?

Principle of Cross-Cutting Relations

Principle of Superposition

Principle of Uniformitarianism

Principle of Inclusions

Principle of Inclusions

7

The half-life of a given radioactive isotope is 100 million years. A specimen contains 4 parent isotopes for every 12 daughter isotopes.

1. How many parent isotopes were there to start with?

2. What fraction is left? How many half-lives have passed?

3. How old is the specimen?

1.) 16

2.) 1/4 so 2 half-lives

3.) 200 million years

8

For a given radioactive material, the half-life is 100,000 years. A sample you are examining contains 3 parent isotopes for every 21 daughter isotopes.

1. What fraction of the parent isotope remains?

2. How many half-lives have past?

3. How old is the sample? 3 / (3+21) = 3 / 24 = 1 / 8 3 half-lives (3 half-lives) * (100,000 yrs) = 300,000 yrs. old

1.) 3 / (3+21) = 3 / 24 = 1/8

2.) 3 half-lives

3.) (3 half-lives) * (100,000 yrs) = 300,000 yrs. old

9

Radon has a decay rate of 4 days. If a sample originally contains 60 grams of radon, how long will it take to reduce to 15 grams of radon?

Number of Half-Lives Amount Left

0 60 grams

1 30 grams

2 15 grams

(2 half-lives) * (4 days) = 8 days

10

What era began 65 million years ago?

Cenozoic

11

When did the Cenozoic era begin?

65 million years ago

12

What era began 248 million years ago?

Mesozoic

13

When did the Mesozoic era begin?

248 million years ago

14

What era began 540 million years ago?

Paleozoic

15

When did the Paleozoic era begin?

540 million years ago

16

What era began 4.6 billion years ago?

Precambrian

17

When did the Precambrian era begin?

4.6 billion years ago

18

When did the Big Bang/the beginning occur?

14 billion years ago (Ga)

19

When was earth formed?

4.6 Ga

(approximately 4.6 billion years ago)

20

Approximately how old is the Earth?

14 billion years

4.6 billion years

40 million years

6000 years

4.6 billion years

21

By the end of the Precambrian, 90% of our continents had developed.

True

False

True

22

Stromatolites are layered structures produced by the activity of ______.

Dinosaurs

Trilobites

Green Algae

Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria

23

Most of the diversification of life on Earth occurred during which era?

Precambrian

Paleozoic

Mesozoic

Cenozoic

Paleozoic

24

The Taconic, Acadian, and Alleghenian orogenic events all led to uplift in the region of the modern _______.

Rocky Mtns.

Alps

Appalachian Mtns.

Himalayas

Appalachian Mtns.

25

Which era is also known as the “Age of

Dinosaurs?"

Mesozoic

Paleozoic

Cenozoic

Hadean

Mesozoic

26

The K-T extinction (that killed the dinosaurs) was the largest extinction in Earth’s history.

True

False

False

27

An element is defined by the number of _____ its atoms contain.

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

Quarks

protons

28

Which type of bonding occurs when atoms share electrons?

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

van der Waals

covalent

29

Which type of chemical bond is the weakest?

Ionic

Covalent

Metallic

van der Waals

van der Waals

30

Which of the following diagnostic properties is the least reliable in identifying a mineral?

Hardness

Streak

Color

Cleavage

color

31

The streak of a mineral will always be the same as its color.

True

False

false

32

Polymorphs have the same composition but different crystalline structure. (Example: diamond and graphite)

True

False

true

33

Increasing the pressure will cause hot rocks to melt.

True

False

false

34

According to Bowen’s Reaction Series, felsic minerals crystallize from cooling magma first.

True

False

false

35

The oceanic crust is primarily composed of igneous rocks with a ____ composition.

Ultramafic

Mafic

Intermediate

Felsic

mafic

36

A(n) ______ in pressure can cause hot rocks to melt.

Increase

Decrease

decrease

37

A mushroom-shaped, intrusive igneous pluton is called a ______.

Dike

Sill

Laccolith

Batholith

Laccolith

38

According to Bowen’s Reaction Series, which type of minerals are the first to MELT?

Felsic

Intermediate

Mafic

felsic

39

The video shows lava erupting in Hawaii. This lava has a ____ viscosity and a ____ silica (SiO4) content.

Low, High

High, High

Low, Low

High, Low

low, low

40

What name is given to an igneous rock with a felsic composition and a fine-grained, extrusive texture?

Rhyolite

Granite

Andesite

Diorite

Rhyolite

41

What name is given to an igneous rock with a mafic composition and a coarse-grained, intrusive texture?

Andesite

Granite

Basalt

Gabbro

Gabbro

42

What name is given to an igneous rock with an intermediate composition and a coarse-grained, intrusive texture?

Andesite

Granite

Diorite

Gabbro

Diorite

43

Volcanic glass is also known as ______.

Rhyolite

Andesite

Obsidian

Pumice

Obsidian

44

Which of the following is NOT an example of physical (mechanical) weathering?

Tree roots prying a rock apart

Rock expands due to pressure release

Water reacts with minerals and dissolves rock

Salt crystals grow between grains and push the rock apart

Water reacts with minerals and dissolves rock

45

Which chemical weathering process is a reaction between a mineral’s ions and the ions found in water?

Hydrolysis

Diffusion

Dissolution

Oxidation

Hydrolysis

46

Chemical and physical weathering processes can occur at the same time.

True

False

True

47

The name ‘Rhyolite’ is given to an igneous rock with a _____ composition and a ______ texture.

Felsic; phaneritic

Mafic; aphanitic

Intermediate; phaneritic

Felsic; aphanitic

Felsic; aphanitic

48

Which chemical weathering process combines oxygen and iron and is important in altering mafic minerals?

Dissolution

Oxidation

Hydrolysis

Carbonation

Oxidation

49

Which type of minerals will weather fastest?

Felsic

Intermediate

Mafic

There is no way to tell

Mafic

50

What is the most influential factor affecting soil formation?

Climate

Time

Topography

Parent material

Climate

51

Given the picture of the sediment below, would you say this sediment has traveled far from its source or not? (Pic of rounded rocks)

Yes, it has traveled a long way

No, it hasn’t traveled very far

Yes, it has traveled a long way

52

Along a beach, there is an abundance of well-rounded, quartz-rich sand. If that beach were lithified, it would turn into ______.

Sandstone

Siltstone

Breccia

Conglomerate

Sandstone

53

In a mountain stream, there are well-rounded pebbles, cobbles, and boulders. If that stream were lithified, it would turn into _______.

Shale

Siltstone

Breccia

Conglomerate

Conglomerate

54

Along a river bank, there are deposits of fine-grained silt. If lithified, this would form a _____.

Shale

Sandstone

Breccia

Conglomerate

Shale

55

Chemical sedimentary rocks can only be formed through inorganic processes.

True

False

False

56

A limestone that is derived from an ancient marine reef is considered to be an organic, chemical sedimentary rock.

True

False

True

57

Which sedimentary rock below is an example of an evaporite?

Conglomerate

Coquina

Sandstone

Rock Salt

Rock Salt