A.P Psych unit 6 Flashcards


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1

Nature V. Nurture: Genetics and twin studies

Nature is what we think of as pre-writing and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors

Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors after conception, e.g. the product of exposure, life experiences and learning on an individual

2

visual cliff expierment

-child is placed on non see through half of platform and encouraged by the mother to crawl to her, child usually stops when they can see through the other half of the platform

-showed that babies can perceive depth at an early age

3

rooting reflex

automatic turn of head when cheek is touched

4

fine motor skill development

-sequence is the same but timing varies for each child

-general order: roll over, sit up, crawl, stand, walk, run

-genetics guide this process

5

teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

(drugs, AIDS, STDS, rubella, etc)

6

Baumrind's Parenting Styles: authoritarian

-characterized by high demandingness with low responsiveness

-rigid, harsh, and demanding

-children who are obedient and proficient, but they rank lower in happiness, social competence, and self esteem

7

Baumrind's Parenting Styles: authoritative

-characterized by high demandingness with huge responsiveness

-child who are happy, capable, and successful

8

Baumrind's Parenting Styles: Permissive

-characterized by low demandingness with high responsiveness

-children who rank low in happiness and self-regulation and are more likely to experience problems with authority and tend to perform poorly in school

9

Mary Ainsworth

observed what she called the strange-situation behavior to investigate forms of attachment bonds between one-year olds and mothers

10

secure attachment

classified by children who show some distress when their caregiver leaves but are able to compose themselves knowing that their caregiver will return

11

insecurly attached

child is unable to be comforted or is violent or distant upon return, may be insecurely attached

12

Harry Harlow

studied attachment with monkeys. what attachment based on provided food (breastfeeding) or contact comfort- physical comfort provided by caregiver

13

imprinting

the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during an early-life critical period

14

temperament

a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

easy- good-natured, easy to care for, adaptable

difficult- moody and intense, react to new situations and people negatively and strongly

slow-to-warm-up- inactive and slow to respond to new things, and when they do react, it is mild

15

chomsky

-we acquire language too quickly for it to be learned from others

-we have this "learning box" inside our brain that enables us to learn any human language

-overregularization/over-generalization: I goed to the store

16

critical period

an optimal period early in life on an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development

17

morphemes

-the smallest unit of language that carries meaning

-can be a word or part of a word (root, prefix, suffix)

-readers: read, er, s

18

phonemes

-the smallest distinctive sound unit in a language

-ex: the word 'that' has 3 phonemes (th, a, t)

-40 in English; 869 in human speech

19

syntax

sentence order

20

assimilation

the process of absorbing new information into existing schemas

21

accomidation

the process of adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to incorporate new information

22

sensorimotor

(birth-2)

the understanding that objects and people continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, hear, or touched. Develops in the sensorimotor stage

23

pre-operational

(2-7)

egocentrism- the inability to consider another person's point of view

ex: thinking daddy wants a new toy truck because that's what you want

24

concrete operational

(7-11)

conservation- mass, volume, etc remain the same despite change in form

ex: water in tall vs. short glass

25

formal operational

(11-15+)

-abstract thinking

-understand hypothetical questions

-this process varies and can develop into late adolescence/early adulthood

26

marcia's identity process in adolescence: diffusion

-no commitment to identity

-not considered it

-"I don't know and I don't care what I'm supposed to do with my life"

27

marcia's identity process in adolescence: moratorium

-trying different options and questioning beliefs

-still searching

-ex: this is when kids turn to drugs and bad things to fill the void

-"I'm thinking about what I should do"

28

marcia's identity process in adolescence: foreclosure

-commitment to identity from parents and family

- no outside search

-ex: parents steering their kid in the direction they want them to go

-"I've made a choice without thinking"

29

marcia's identity process in adolescence: achievement

-well-defined personality and commitment

-search is successful

-"I thought about it and I now know what I should do with my life"

30

teens risky behavior (frontal lobe development)

...

31

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

trust V. mistrust

-infancy

-infants form loving, trusting relationships with parents or a sense of mistrust (ainsworth)

32

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Autonomy V. Shame and Doubt

-1 to 3 years

-kids trying to do things on their own, say no, may doubt their abilities if not guided (potty training)

33

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Initiative V. Guilt

-3 to 6 years

-trying tasks (laundry, cooking, getting dressed, etc) and need to be instructed, otherwise feeling of guilt

-at this age toys are geared towards "adult things" ex: kitchen set

34

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Competence (industry) V. Inferiority

-6 to puberty

-applying themselves to tasks, especially in school and activities, are now being compared to peers

-sports and activites

35

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Identity V. Role Confusion

-teens to 20s

-finding a sense of self through experimentation, rejection creates confusion and difficulty in adulthood

36

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Intimacy V. Isolation

-20s to 40s

-forming close relationships or sense of isolation

37

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Generativity V. Stagnation

-40s to 60s

-find new ways to contribute or feel a lack of purpose

-midlife crisis

38

Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Development:

Integrity V. Despair

-60s and up

-reflection on life well lived or regrets

39

Old cognitive decline

ability to solve problems, see relationships and think abstractly- this declines after middle age

40

marital satisfaction for empty nesters

marital satisfaction declines after children but improves once children leave home

41

Kohlberg's Moral Development:

pre-conventional

-self-interest

-reward=right punishment=wrong

-heinz=i'm gonna steal the drug to save my wife

42

Kohlberg's Moral Development:

conventional

-maintain law and order

-social approval/order

43

Kohlberg's Moral Development:

post-conventional

-belief in basic rights and ethical principles regardless of the consequence

-you may stand to lose by standing up for what you think is right

-very few people get to this level

-ex: MLK jr., lincoln, civil rights movement

44

Kohlberg's Moral Development:

Gillian's Critique

-non-western cultures have different moral ideas/thoughts

-women may also come to moral decisions differently

-caring orientation (women) V. justice oriented (men)

-thoughts V. actions

45

operational defintions

the definition of a concept in terms of the actual procedures used by the researcher to measure it

46

scatterplots

graphs used to plot the scores and show correlation

47

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

48

dendrities

receive neural messages

49

PET scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where radio active form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

50

activation synthesis of dreams

during the night our brain stem releases random neural activity, dreams may be a way to make sense of that activity

51

amygalda

two lima- bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

52

cones

-detect fine detail and color vision, near the center of the retina (fovea), daylight or well-lit conditions

53

vestibular sense

gravity and balance sense, allows us to move smoothly

54

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that confucts sound waves to the choclea

55

inborn distaste for bitter

biologically programmed into our system, as many poisons and toxins have a bitter flavor

56

cognitive map

a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.

ex: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have a cognitive map of it

57

classical conditioning scenario

card image

58

positive reinforcement

strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus after a response

ex: getting praise from a teacher for answering a question

59

observational learning

watching and mimicking other- monkey see monkey do

60

functional fixedness

the inability to perceive a new use for an object associated with a different purpose

61

loftus' misinformation study

memories being changed after the event — as demonstrated by Loftus

62

algorithm

methodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantee solving a particular problem because it explores every possibility

63

aptitude

a person's future performance