Physiology 1/25 and 1/27 and 1/30 Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 1 year ago by bitchalaureate_of_science
9 views
updated 1 year ago by bitchalaureate_of_science
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

types of cancer

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma

2

meaning of carcinoma

epithelial cell cancer

3

meaning of sarcoma

connective tissue cancer

4

special characteristic of basal cell carcinomas that make them more noticeable

because of failure to differentiate, the tumor allows interstitial fluid through the skin, forming an ulcer

5

what protects growth of tumor from spreading beneath basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas

basement membrane

6

characteristics of tumor cells

super proliferation, failure to differentiate

7

characteristics of differentiation in the skin

keratin production, nuclei loss, adhesion junctions, flat shape - all of these things cause it to repel water

8

special characteristic of squamous cell carcinomas that make them more noticeable

rougher than normal skin because of partial differentiation

9

mortality rate of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

around 50 percent

10

causes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

tobacco, alcohol, HPV

11

why immune system does not fight melanomas

no foreign proteins are present

12

what causes a lack of foreign proteins to be present in a cancer

mutations only involve expression of genes controlling cell division

13

characteristics of a regular mole

symmetrical, sharp border, uniform color, small

14

characteristics of a melanoma infected mole

asymmetrical, jagged border, multiple colors, greater than or equal to 6mm in diameter

15

great risk in melanomas

metastasis, so it could spread beyond repair within 3 weeks

16

mortality rate of melanomas

1 out of 8

17

source of endocrine signals

endocrine glands and endocrine cells

18

relative concentration of hormone needed to cause significant change in the body

very small

19

how many cells hormones are exposed to

all of them

20

which cells respond to hormones

the ones with the right receptors

21

parathyroid hormone (PTH) is involved in the concentration of which ion?

calcium

22

body's response to PTH secretion

osteoclasts reabsorb bone and release calcium, kidneys reabsorb calcium out of urine, intestinal epithelial cells absorb more calcium out of intestinal contents, skin synthesizes vitamin D

23

relative speed and duration for hormone vs neuron response

hormones are much slower and last much longer

24

half life of Synthroid

7 days

25

how the body removes hormones from the bloodstream

excreted by kidneys, excreted by liver, destroyed by plasma enzymes, endocytosed by their receptors

26

the 3 types of hormones

amine, peptide, and steroid

27

size and solubility of amine hormones

very polar, very small

28

size and solubility of peptide hormones

very polar, relatively large

29

size and solubility of steroid hormones

very nonpolar, small-ish

30

how steroid hormone exists in plasma

it is bound to a soluble carrier protein

31

course of steroid protein from plasma to cytoplasm of cell

bound to carrier protein, released through basement membrane as free hormone, travels through ISF, diffuses through cell membrane, attaches to receptor protein in cytoplasm

32

what steroid hormones are derivatives of

cholesterol

33

where the connection is between the endocrine system and the nervous system (CNS)

hypothalamic-pituitary axis

34

nickname for the pituitary

master gland

35

what gives orders to the pituitary

the hypothalamus

36

general map of how hormone is released

problem-->hypothalamus-->releasing hormone-->pituitary-->stimulating hormone-->specific endocrine gland-->hormone-->blood-->target cells-->remedy problem

37

adrenal gland response to low glucose stress

hypothalamus-->CRH-->anterior pituitary-->ACTH-->adrenal cortex-->glucocorticoids-->target cells release glucose

38

what regulates secretion of hormone

hormone concentration, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, synapse from neurons, negative feedback

39

thyroid gland response to low T3 and T4

hypothalamus-->TRH-->anterior pituitary-->TSH-->thyroid-->T3 and T4-->increase metabolic rate

40

how glucose is stored

glycogen in liver, fatty acids in adipose, proteins in muscle

41

asterisk about homeostasis

certain concentrations are allowed to rise "above normal" for short periods of time without causing any damage

42

what has died in diabetes 1

beta cells

43

double hyperglycemia

insulin is not produced, so glucose levels rise in the bloodstream, causing stored glucose to break down and release even more glucose into the blood stream

44

hyperlipidemia

fatty acids break down and add too many lipids to the blood stream

45

polyuria

excessive peeing, usually from glucose spilling over into urine and taking water, calcium and sodium with it

46

cause of muscle atrophy in type 1 diabetes

stored glucose in muscle proteins has all broken down

47

causes of diabetic coma

not enough sodium to keep nerves functioning, protein precipitation in nerves from H2O loss, sodium channels close from low pH, too much insulin was injected

48

type 1 diabetes

insulin dependent childhood-onset

49

type 2 diabetes

noninsulin dependent adult-onset

50

hyperglycemia

too much glucose in the blood stream

51

issue with insulin in type 2 diabetes

insulin is secreted normally but cells have decreased ability to respond to it, so glucose is left unstored

52

metabolic syndrome

obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes

53

treatments for type 2 diabetes

insulin, diet, exercise, bypass surgery, drugs that block glucose release from liver, drugs that block glucose reabsorption from the liver

54

A1C level above 6.5%

excessive glycation of hemoglobin, indicates diabetes

55

cause of cataracts in diabetes

excessive glycation of lens crystallins

56

cause of atherosclerosis in diabetes

hyperlipidemia, contributes to plaque formation in arteries

57

cause of gangrene in diabetes

anaerobic conditions

58

fat accumulation in the liver

fatty liver disease

59

what lack of oxygen to the kidneys leads to

kidney failure

60

what lack of oxygen in the heart leads to

heart attack

61

what lack of oxygen in the brain leads to

stroke

62

what amine hormones are derived from

tyrosine

63

insulin is an example of what kind of hormone structure

peptide hormone

64

testosterone is an example of what kind of hormone structure

steroid hormone

65

adrenalin is an example of what kind of hormone structure

amine hormone

66

what steroid hormones can do that amine and peptide hormones cannot do, due to its nonpolarity

diffuse through the plasma membrane

67

where beta cells exist in the body, secreting insulin

the islets of the pancreas

68

acidosis of the blood

fatty acids are used for energy too much, creating acid waste all over the body

69

symptoms of hypoglycemia

nervousness, shakiness, irritability

70

causes of hypoglycemia

insulin overdose, islet tumor, liver damage, lack of ACTH

71

what causes hypoxia issues in diabetes

plaque forming on walls of arteries, reducing blood flow