Physiology 1/20 and 1/23 Flashcards


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1

resident immune cells that don't have to be brought into the injury site

macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells

2

immune cells that have to be brought in through capillaries

neutrophils

3

3 methods neutrophils use to kill microorganisms

enzymes, ROS, DNA net

4

IL-1

pro-inflammatory protein made by macrophages and dendritic cells

5

causes of cell stress

viral growth inside, bacterial growth inside, or mutation

6

stress signal

MICA

7

innate immunity's version of cytotoxic T cells

natural killer cells

8

reason why most exposures to viruses and bacteria are asymptomatic

innate immune system kills microorganisms before significant damage is caused

9

different kinds of lymphocytes

B lymphocytes, NK lymphocytes, T lymphocytes (helper, regulatory, cytotoxic)

10

layers of skin (general)

epidermis, dermis, hypodermis

11

contained in epidermis

stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, hair follicles, dermal papillae, melanocytes, basement membrane

12

contained in dermis

some dermal papillae, some basement membrane and stratum germinativum, capillaries, base of hair follicles

13

contained in hypodermis

mostly adipose

14

2 molecules that control skin color

melanin, hemoglobin

15

erythema

redness from inflammation, caused by greater concentration of hemoglobin in an area

16

oxyhemoglobin

normal pink color caused by hemoglobin

17

effect of constricted capillaries on skin color

pallor

18

deoxyhemoglobin

cyanotic/bluish color, can be caused by emphysema, bruising, etc

19

biliverdin

breakdown of hemoglobin, causes greenish color

20

bilirubin

further breakdown of hemoglobin than biliverdin, causes yellowish color/jaundice

21

stercobilin

breakdown of hemoglobin, causes brownish color in feces

22

first degree burn

kills some epidermis, takes 3-4 days to heal, healing is done by the surviving parts of the dermal papillae

23

second degree burn

kills all of epidermis and some dermis, takes 3-4 weeks to heal, healing is done by basal cells of hair follicles, causes blistering

24

third degree burn

kills all epidermis and all dermis, takes too long to heal because all healing is done by basal cells peripheral to the injury.

25

necessity in healing a third degree burn

skin graft

26

high risks in third degree burns

infection, fluid loss and subsequent loss of blood pressure, leading to shock

27

issue with skin grafting

removal of epidermis and some dermis from another part of the body causes second degree burn in that part of the body, so injury is fixed by creating another injury

28

how primary tumor cells spread to the lymphatic system

cells break off and enter the lymph capillary, travelling into the lymph node and usually staying there

29

what happens to the cancer cell that enters the lymph node

it is either killed by lymphocytes or it grows and multiplies inside the lymph node using the nutritious environment

30

how doctors find cancer in lymph nodes

can be felt if cancer has grown inside them, if tumor is felt the node is removed and sent to a pathologist

31

commonalities in adaptive immunity

generated in bone marrow, stored in lymph organs, circulate in blood stream, attack pathogens

32

four branches of adaptive immunity

B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, supervisor T lymphocytes, phagocytic cells

33

what type of immunity are B lymphocytes

humoral immunity

34

how antibodies defeat pathogens

opsonization and neutralization

35

what type of immunity are cytotoxic T lymphocytes

cell-mediated immunity

36

2 ways cytotoxic T cells destroy host cells

apoptosis and perforation

37

2 types of supervisor T lymphocytes

helper T cells and regulatory T cells

38

what phagocytic cells do at the beginning of an adaptive immune response

phagocytosis and presentation of antigens on cell surface, leading to identification of lymphocytes with the right receptors and cloning of those specific lymphocytes

39

what phagocytic cells do at the end of an adaptive immune response

phagocytose the corpses

40

characteristics of adaptive immunity

highly specific, powerful, has memory, energy expensive, very slow