physiology 1/20 Flashcards


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1

how primary tumor cells spread to the lymphatic system

cells break off and enter the lymph capillary, travelling into the lymph node and usually staying there

2

what happens to the cancer cell that enters the lymph node

it is either killed by lymphocytes or it grows and multiplies inside the lymph node using the nutritious environment

3

how doctors find cancer in lymph nodes

can be felt if cancer has grown inside them, if tumor is felt the node is removed and sent to a pathologist

4

commonalities in adaptive immunity

generated in bone marrow, stored in lymph organs, circulate in blood stream, attack pathogens

5

four branches of adaptive immunity

B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, supervisor T lymphocytes, phagocytic cells

6

what type of immunity are B lymphocytes

humoral immunity

7

how antibodies defeat pathogens

opsonization and neutralization

8

what type of immunity are cytotoxic T lymphocytes

cell-mediated immunity

9

2 ways cytotoxic T cells destroy host cells

apoptosis and perforation

10

2 types of supervisor T lymphocytes

helper T cells and regulatory T cells

11

what phagocytic cells do at the beginning of an adaptive immune response

phagocytosis and presentation of antigens on cell surface, leading to identification of lymphocytes with the right receptors and cloning of those specific lymphocytes

12

what phagocytic cells do at the end of an adaptive immune response

phagocytose the corpses

13

characteristics of adaptive immunity

highly specific, powerful, has memory, energy expensive, very slow