1/17 and 1/19 and 1/24 Molecular Biology Flashcards


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Flashcards for QUIZ 1 + after for EXAM 1
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1

type of disorder that cystic fibrosis is, and what organ it affects primarily

autosomal recessive, affects lungs

2

which ion causes water imbalance in cystic fibrosis?

Cl-

3

what rate of diffusion depends on

size, solubility, charge of molecule

4

active transport

uses energy source, ie ATP or gradient

5

passive transport

no energy input, just openings that allow molecules through

6

membrane potential

voltage difference across a membrane

7

makeup of an electrochemical gradient

charge gradient and chemical gradient

8

what is needed to change membrane potential

transporters

9

channels

choosy about size and charge, not very selective

10

transporters

use binding sites, conformational changes

highly selective, can be active or passive

11

pumps

versions of transporters that are active

12

how passive transporters move molecules in respect to gradients

they move them along the gradient

13

how pumps move molecules molecules in respect to gradients

they move them against the gradient

14

example of a passive gradient

glucose transporters

15

gradient-driven pumps

move one molecule in its favorable direction, drags another in an unfavorable direction

16

ATP-driven pumps

use ATP to shift pump movement and cause conformational change

17

example of ATP-driven pumps

sodium potassium pumps

18

steps in sodium potassium pumps

  • sodium binds in cytosol --> phosphorylation
  • conformational change --> sodium moves from one side to the other
  • K+ binds to changed conformation --> dephosphorylation
  • pump returns to original conformation
  • K+ is released into the cytosol

19

symports

both move in the same direction

20

antiports

one moves out and one moves in

21

2 ways gradient-driven pumps can act

as symports or antiports

22

example of a gradient-driven pump

glucose sodium pump

23

ion channels transport type

passive transport, meaning no conformational change

24

types of gating mechanisms

voltage gated, ligand gated, mechanically gated

25

voltage gated

regulated by membrane potential

26

ligand gated

unlocks by binding to specific molecules

27

mechanically gated

force must be applied to unlock the gate

28

how action potentials cross synapses

voltage gated Ca+2 channels

29

Trikafta

new drug for cystic fibrosis, uses three drugs combined to fix channel problems, acceptable side effects and effectiveness

30

cause of muscular dystrophy diseases

mutation in the dystrophin gene, causing a shock absorber protein not to be produced or to be produced incorrectly

31

amphipathic

has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts

32

what kind of movement lipid bilayers can do, which makes them behave like a liquid

lipids and proteins in the bilayer are free to rotate and move laterally

33

what membrane fluidity depends on

phospholipid composition (saturated vs unsaturated), tail/chain length, amount of cholesterol

34

cell cortex

meshwork of protein that gives shape to and reinforces the cell membrane - well known for its role in giving RBCs their biconcave shape

35

where new membrane phospholipids are made

endoplasmic reticulum

36

scramblase

randomly flips phospholipids across the bilayer

37

3 places in the cell where new membrane phospholipids can go

stay in the ER, go to the cell's plasma membrane, go to another organelle in the cell

38

flippase

uses ATP to move phospholipids between layers - purposeful

39

by weight, ratio of lipids to proteins in most membranes

1:1

40

types of membrane proteins

transmembrane, monolayer associated, lipid linked, peripheral

41

monolayer associated

mostly in the cytosol

42

lipid linked

only attached to the membrane by a lipid group

43

peripheral

connected to the membrane by another protein

44

example of membrane domains tethered to other cells

tight junctions

45

examples of proteins with sugars attached

glycoproteins, proteoglycans, glycocalyx

46

AON

antisense oligonucleotides, used to block regions from being spliced or translated

47

type of mutation duchenne muscular dystrophy is associated with

frameshift mutation

48

how therapeutic drugs are attempting to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy

causing a larger deletion of the DNA transcripts, leading to a less severe form of muscular dystrophy

49

what type of neurons are lost in ALS

motor neurons

50

why ALS is relevant in talking about nuclear transport

it is associated with poor nuclear cytoplasm transport

51

why it's important to have membrane bound organelles

allows for incompatible processes to occur simultaneously

52

where most proteins are synthesized

in the cytosol

53

what acts as an "address" on proteins so they get sent to the right location?

sorting signals/patches

54

"necessary and sufficient"

we need it and it's good enough to get the job done

55

the three transport mechanisms

transport through NPC, protein translocation, vesicular transport

56

transport through NPC

protein is fed through pore in nucleus

57

type of transport fully folded proteins go through

active transport

58

purpose of disordered regions around NPCs

act as a sieve to only allow small polar molecules through

59

mechanism that allows proteins to be imported into the nucleus

NLS binds to nuclear import receptors, with interact with FG and bump from FG to FG until they get through the disordered "seaweed" region

60

what drives nuclear import directionality

Ran-GTP

61

location of Ran-GAP

mostly in the cytosol

62

location of Ran-GEF

mostly in the nucleus

63

why Ran-GTP is highest in the nucleus

because of Ran-GEF

64

why Ran-GDP is highest in the cytosol

because of Ran-GAP

65

nuclear import cycle

GTP is hydrolyzed, Ran-GDP dissociates from the receptor, allowing protein to bind to the now free receptor --> Ran-GTP binds to the receptor --> protein is delivered to the nucleus

66

where protein translocation is primarily moving things

into the mitochondria/chloroplast or ER

67

special features of mitochondria and chloroplasts

inner and outer membrane, their own DNA

68

translocation effect on protein

it unfolds and has to be refolded by chaperones

69

membrane bound proteins

proteins that need to go to the ER

70

"free ribosomes"

all other proteins (not membrane bound)

71

location of soluble proteins made by the ER

free floating in the cytosol

72

SRP

located in the cytosol, binds ribosome and ER signal during translation

73

SRP-receptor

located in the ER membrane, recognizes SRP

74

significance of SRP binding to the ribosome

slows translation, giving SRP a chance to bind to the receptor

75

peptidase

cuts signal peptide to release protein from the membrane

76

usual orientation of insertion

N-terminal

77

what determines orientation of insertion

signal sequence

78

when translocation halts

when stop transfer sequence is reached

79

what direction the translocator releases in

sideways

80

multipass

signals are not cleaved

81

single pass

signals are cleaved

82

drug to treat ALS for its antioxidant properties

Edaravone

83

familial hypercholesterolemia

genetic disease that causes high LDL levels

84

where protein transport layovers tend to be

first in the ER, then in the golgi

85

predominant form of transport between ER and golgi

vesicular transport

86

exocytic pathway

proteins are destined to leave the cell

87

endocytic pathway

proteins are destined for ingestion and degradation by the cell

88

how target compartments deal with asymmetry caused by acceptance of vesicles

flippases deal with asymmetry

89

function of membrane coats on vesicles

facilitate shape/formation, captures molecules that need to be moved, shed shortly after forming

90

the most well-studied coats

clathrin coated vesicles

91

what recognizes cargo bound vesicles by facilitating interaction with clathrin

adaptin

92

constricts around bud and uses GTP to pinch off

dynamin

93

family of GTPases that help vesicles recognize target

Rab proteins

94

first connection in vessicle formation

RapGTP binds to Rab effector protein

95

where v-snares are located

on vesicle

96

where t-snares are located

on organelle (target)

97

function of snare proteins

help complete decking and fusion, which requires H2O displacement (energetically unfavorable)

98

type of modification in the ER

generic

99

type of modification in the golgi

specific

100

the 2 modifications made in the ER

disulfide bonds and glycosylation

101

function of glycosylation in vesicles

protects from degradation, retains in ER until fully folded, guide to correct organelle, forms glycocalyx

102

cisternal maturation

folds of the golgi mature and migrate with the cargo

103

provides stepwise border to modifications in the golgi

cis and trans faces

104

types of secretion in protein transport

constitutive and regulated

105

how regulated proteins are secreted

bud off and hang out near the PM waiting for a signal, cargo is typically selectively aggregated