CH10- Nervous System Flashcards


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1

receives impulses at the synapse

postsynaptic nerve

2

gathers info by detecting changes and sending them to CNS neuron

sensory receptors

3

Resemble astrocytes and form in rows along the axon to myelinate in the brain and spinal cord

oligodendrocytes

4

the process by which the impulse in the presynaptic neuron signals the postsynaptic cell; across a synapse (excitatory or inhibitory)

synaptic transmission

5

react to change and send nerve impulses for communication

neurons

6

composed layer by Schwann cells; lipids and proteins

myelin

7

a neuron that has many processes and are 99% of neurons of CNS

multipolar neuron

8

a neuron that has only two processes, specialized for eyes, nose, and ears

bipolar neuron

9

a neuron that has a single process from its cell body; found in ganglia-clusters

unipolar neuron

10

afferent neurons that carry impulses to the CNS

sensory neurons

11

efferent neurons that carry impulses towards effectors

motor neurons

12

branches receptive surfaces that receive info

dendrites

13

produce myelin sheath found in PNS

Schwann cells

14

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

15

resting neuron, not being stimulated (-70 mv)

resting potential

16

transmits impulses and releases neurotransmitters to another neuron or effector

axon

17

gaps in sheath between Schwann cells

nodes of ranvier

18

brain and spinal cord neurons

central nervous sytem (CNS)

19

biological messenger molecules

Neurotransmitters

20

the jumping and skipping of axon to nodes, father than conduction in unmyelinated axons (only in myelinated)

saltatory conduction

21

released neurotransmitters cross the cleft and react with specific receptors (changes in chemically gated ion channels)

synaptic potentials

22

rapid change in membrane potential

action potential

23

surround myelin sheath; cytoplasm and nucleus that remain outside myelin

neurilemma

24

line the central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain, cover the choroid plexuses; regulate CF composition

ependymal cells

25

support clusters of neuron cell bodies (ganglia)

satellite cells

26

link neurons, located in CNS

interneurons

27

the neuron conducting an impulse to the synapse (sender)

presynaptic neuron

28

-55 mv

threshold potential

29

support and nourish neurons and held send and receive messages (blood-brain barrier)

neuroglia

30

increase permeability to Na ions, closer to threshold; increase likelihood of APs

excitatory neurotransmitters

31

found between neurons and blood vessels where they provide support and hold structures together with cellular processes

astrocytes

32

the charge/polarization of the cell membrane, unequal distribution of ions; inside (neg); out (pos)

membrane potential

33

phagocytic cell; cleans up

microglia

34

transmits voluntary instructions to muscles

somatic nervous system

35

transmits involuntary instructions from CNS to smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

automatic nervous system

36

separates the 2 neurons or neuron and effector

synaptic cleft

37

bioelectric signals sent by axons (APs)

impulses

38

small space between a neuron and the cells it communicates with

synapse

39

first part of axon contains Na channels (voltage gated)

trigger zone

40

move membrane father from threshold, decrease likelihood of generating impulses

inhibitory neurotransmitters